In May, Microsoft has fixed a bug that allowed normal users to impersonate Domain Controllers. This bug allowed non-privileged users to obtain a logon certificate issued to a domain controller, because users can write to the Active Directory attribute dnsHostNameof a computer they have joined to the domain. If a machine can enroll for a … Continue reading Defused That SAN Flag!
I am writing about that PKI stuff again. I am running out of ideas for catchy introductions. So, here is a new post with old code! In Active Directory a UPN is mapped to a user automatically if it matches a user's LDAP attribute userPrincipalName (and a DNS SAN is mapped to dnsHostName). A Windows … Continue reading How to Add a Subject Alternative Name Safely
I am back to my favorite security research: How to abuse certificates in a Windows / Active Directory environment! If an Active Directory integrated certification authority sign a certificate with a custom Subject Alternative Name of your choosing, you can impersonate any administrator in an AD forest. I've published two blog posts about how to … Continue reading Rogue Certificate Challenge: No Hardware Tokens, No Linux, Just a Web Server with Certificate Mapping.
I live at the fringes of the cybersecurity community. I have never attended infosec conferences. There will be a talk on PKI hacking at Blackhat 2021 soon: Top AD offensive security gurus are presenting comprehensive research on abusing ADCS (Active Directory Certificate Services). I only know about that, because I noticed backlinks from their article … Continue reading Looking Back: Hacking and Defending Windows Public Key Infrastructure (ADCS)
How can you read files encrypted with Windows's Encrypting File System if you neither have access to the owner's encryption certificate and key and nor that of a legit data recovery agent (DRA) ... but if you are a local administrator? This work is still inspired by the hackthebox machine Helpline. You were able to … Continue reading Injecting an EFS Recovery Agent – and Let the Virus Scanner Help You!
You can parse the binary blobs that represent certificates stored in the Windows registry with certutil correctly, even when the Windows Explorer / GUI tells you that this is not a certificate. certutil seems to be able to handle / ignore meta data better. Once upon a time I played with the machine Ethereal provided by … Continue reading Parse Certificates Stored in the Windows Registry
This is about a serious misconfiguration of a Windows Public Key Infrastructure integrated with Active Directory: If you can edit certificate templates, you can impersonate the Active Directory Forests's Enterprise Administrator by logging on with a client certificate. You have a persistent credential that will also survive the reset of this admin's password. In the … Continue reading Impersonating a Windows Enterprise Admin with a Certificate: Kerberos PKINIT from Linux
Last year, hackthebox let me test something I have always found fascinating - and scary: You can impersonate any user in a Windows Active Directory Forest if you have control over the certificate templates of an AD-integrated Windows Public Key Infrastructure: Add extended key usages for smartcard logon to the template, enroll for the certificate, … Continue reading Locating Domain Controllers and Spoofing Active Directory DNS Servers
Another great machine has been retired on hackthebox.eu - Helpline by @egre55! Here is my 'silly' unintended way to root the box: You can get both the encrypted user and root flag via the cumbersome web RCE alone - if you wait for a legit user to just look at the file. This is unlikely … Continue reading Helpline @ hackthebox: Injecting an EFS Recovery Agent to Read Encrypted Files
Just dumping some quick and dirty one-liners! These are commands I had used to explore locked-down Windows and Linux machines, using bash or powershell when no other binaries were available or could be transferred to the boxes easily. Trying to ping all hosts in a subnet Linux for i in $(seq 1 254); do host=192.168.0.$i; … Continue reading Simple Ping Sweep, Port Scan, and Getting Output from Blind Remote Command Execution
How to transfer small files to a locked-down Windows machine? When there is no option to copy, ftp, or http GET a file. When powershell is blocked so that you can only use Windows cmd commands? My first choice would be to use certutil: certutil is a built-in tool for certificate and PKI management. It … Continue reading Echo Unreadable Hex Characters in Windows: forfiles
Some public key infrastructures run quietly in the background since years. They are half forgotten until the life of a signed file has come to an end - but then everything is on fire. In contrast to other seemingly important deadlines (Management needs this until XY or the world will come to an end!) this … Continue reading Certificates and PKI. The Prequel.
Recently somebody has asked me where the log files are stored. This question is more interesting then it seems. We are using the freely programmable controller UVR16x2 (and its predecessor) UVR1611) ... .. and their Control and Monitoring Interface - CMI: The CMI is a data logger and runs a web server. It logs data … Continue reading Where Are the Files? [Winsol – UVR16x2]
This post has originally been published to my other / 'archive' website in 2014, first as a PDF, later converted to a HTML article. I am publishing it here on my WordPress blog in April 2022, using its original publication date - as it predates most of the other articles in my PKI UPN AD … Continue reading Automatic Mapping of Logon Certificates to Users in Active Directory